Stirling Biographies

Harriet Adelaide Stirling OBE (1878-1943)

Harriet Adelaide Stirling was the eldest daughter of Edward Charles and Jane Stirling (née Gilbert). Harriet’s father was a remarkable scholar who played a successful role in South Australian medicine, science and politics. EC Stirling helped to found the Medical School at the University of Adelaide, founded the Adelaide Museum and participated in many significant 19th century expeditions for the Museum. He was also a great supporter of the rights of women, and was the first person in Australasia to introduce a bill for women’s suffrage. He became the North Adelaide Member of the House of Assembly in 1884, and in the following year he moved a motion for women’s suffrage. Then in 1886 he introduced a bill for women’s suffrage into the South Australian parliament. Although this bill was not passed, it presumably prepared the way for the similar bill which was passed in 1894. Not only was EC Stirling committed to the political rights of women, but he also believed in their right to a proper education. He lectured at the Advanced School for Girls, and also campaigned for women to be admitted to Adelaide University’s School of Medicine.

Coming from an influential and successful family and having such an intelligent and liberal father provided many advantages for Harriet. She had access to an excellent education and encouraged to pursue a wide range of interests. She was born in London in 1878, and in 1881 her parents took her and her two younger sisters back to their native South Australia, where they lived first in North Adelaide, and then later at their beautiful house, St Vigeans, near Stirling in the Adelaide Hills. The girls (eventually five of them) were taught at home by a well-respected German governess.

Although Harriet never married or had any children of her own, she devoted herself to the welfare of children. In this she was certainly inspired by her father, who had worked as a surgeon at the Belgrave Hospital for Children in London and always maintained an interest in paediatrics during his career as Professor of Physiology at Adelaide University. She also loved helping with her younger brothers and sisters. Harriet’s eldest nephew remembered her as being a kind and gentle women who always gave generously of herself to those in need.

Harriet numbered among her friends many influential South Australian women, including Catherine Helen Spence and Dr Helen Mayo. Spence formed the State Children’s Council with support from Harriet Stirling, whose father was its first President. Harriet herself was a member of the Council from 1907, and she served as its President from 1922 to 1926. Some of the orphaned wards of State were taken under her wing at her family’s St Vigeans property.

On 12 February 1914, Harriet was appointed an ‘Honorary Commissioner to inquire into and report upon the question of the Control and Management of State and Neglected Children in Great Britain and on the Continent of Europe’. In that capacity she wrote a paper titled ‘A review of some of the agencies in use in saving child life in South Australia’.

Harriet was also passionate about the education, support and health of women. In 1909, she and her friend Dr Helen Mayo jointly founded the School for Mothers. Earlier that year, Dr Mayo had presented a paper on infant mortality which raised general awareness of many of the problems faced by mothers. A visit and lecture by a worker from the St Pancreas School for Mothers in London inspired Harriet and Dr Mayo to form their own school in Adelaide. The school proved successful, and in 1927 became the Mothers and Babies’ Health Association, a body which is much valued to this day.

Another serious concern for Harriet and Dr Mayo was that children under two were not admitted to the Adelaide Children’s Hospital! (apparently due to the risk of infection - they were only allowed in for the period of necessary surgery). From 1913, the two of them campaigned for a babies’ ward to be added to the Children’s Hospital, and when their request was refused they established their own hospital for babies in 1914. This was later taken over by the Government and relocated to Woodville, becoming the Mareeba Babies’ Hospital in 1917. Harriet was actively involved with the framing of the policy for this hospital, as well as serving as its secretary.

Harriet lived in the family home of St Vigean’s until her widowed mother died and the house was sold, at which time she established her own home, Brothock, nearby. She then lived there until her death in 1943. Her efforts for the mothers and babies of South Australia made a significant contribution to the health and well-being of countless South Australians. Her dedication to this important work earned her an OBE in the early 20th century.

Written by Anna Stirling Pope, Goodwood, South Australia
September 2000

· Family records held by AS Pope - files: ‘Stirling, Harriet Adelaide’.
· Stirling, Harriet A, [undated], ‘A review of some of the agencies in use in saving child life in South Australia’, 11-page typescript, SA Archives PRG 388.
· Oral history: ES Booth (SOHC/MLSA OH295).
· Advertiser, 26 September 1984, p 6.
· Mt Barker Courier, 26 May 1982, p 4.
· The Medical Journal of Australia, 1968, 1: 368 (2 March) and 738 (27 April).
· Mothers and Babies’ Health Association Inc. 59th Annual Report, June 1968, pp 7-8.
· Duncan, WGK 1973, The University of Adelaide 1874-1974, Rigby, p 64.

John Stirling  - Minister

Dates: 1648-1727
Notes: Principal, University of Glasgow, 1701-1727. Minister of Inchinnan, 1691-1694 Minister of Greenock West, 1694-1701. Son of John Stirling (d.1683). [See Fasti Ecclesiae Scotticanae]

Letter Information - Letter from Lord Pollock to John Stirling. London, December 12 1702 London

Letter From John Stirling

Images of the Old West Kirk at Greencock -

Greenock Parish Kirk

Old West Kirk
Within The Old West Kirk there is a brass plaque which lists its ministers from 1591 to 1832:
the heading is a reminder of its historic beginning:

"Under a Charter of King James VI  Given at Holyrood House November 18th, 1589This Church was built
by Sir John Shaw of Greenock in 1591.

The Ministers of the Church:

Andrew Murdo (1591)
John Layng (1598)
James Taylor (1640)
Niel Gillies (1679)
Alexander Gordon (1688)
John Stirling (1694)
Andrew Turner (1704)
David Turner (1721)
Allan McAulay (1786)
Robert Steele (1792)
Patrick McFarlane, D.D. (1832)

Disused in 1841 after having been for 250 years the Parish Church and for (150) of these the only church in Greenock.

Restored and re-opened on Christmas Day 1864 through the liberality of the parishioners."

Presented by James Rankin, M.A. Ordained Minister here July 21st, 1865.

Actress Jan Sterling, the beautiful often conniving blonde in Hollywood film noir movies of the '40s and '50s, died Jan Sterling 1Friday, the 26th of March 2004. She was 82. 

Ms. Sterling recently broke her hip then suffered a couple of strokes from which she never recovered, close friend Kay Tomborg said. She died at the Motion Picture and Television Fund's home and hospital facility in Woodland Hills. 

Ms. Sterling's most remembered role came in 1951 with Billy Wilder's film "Ace in the Hole" (re-released as " The Big Carnival"). Kirk Douglas starred as a ruthless reporter seeking a scoop by prolonging the rescue of a man trapped in a cave. Ms. Sterling played a sardonic observer. 

"I remember Jan Sterling as being a very funny woman," actor Robert Arthur recalled.  "For me, she was the comic relief in an otherwise grim story. She uttered the famous line: ' I never go to church because it bags my nylons,'" said Arthur, who also was in the movie.  Jane Sterling Adriance was born into a socially prominent New York City family on April 3, 1921. She studied acting in England and made her New York debut at age 15. Her blond beauty and dramatic intensity made her a movie star in such films as "Johnny Belinda," "Caged," "Flesh and Fury," "Split Second," "The Human Jungle," "Women's Prison," "Female on the Beach" and "Slaughter on Tenth Avenue." 

In 1954, Ms. Sterling played one of the terrified passengers on a troubled flight from Hawaii to the mainland in "The High and the Mighty." Her performance won her a Golden Globe statue and an Academy Award nomination for best supporting actress. 

Jan 2

Ms. Sterling was the widow of actor Paul Douglas and longtime companion of actor Sam Wanamaker, who died in 1993. Her son, Adams Douglas, died of heart failure three months ago.  Funeral arrangements are pending.

General Sir William Stirling, KCB., R.A.General Sir William Stirling, KCB, RA

General Sir William Stirling, KCB., R.A. was born on 4th August 1835; Educated Edinburgh Academy, and Royal Military Academy, Woolwich; s. of Charles Stirling (c1789-1867) of Muiravonside and Charlotte Dorothea Stirling (c1800-1862). He served throughout the Eastern campaign of 1854-55, including the affairs of Bulganac and M'kenzies Farm, the battles of Alma, Balaklava and Inkerman, the seige and fall of Sebastopol, and repulse of the sortie on the 26th October 1854 (Medal with four Clasps, Knight of the Legion of Honor, and Turkish Medal). Served as Brigade Major of Artillery with Rajpootana Field Force at the capture of Kotah on 30th March 1858 (Medal, and Brevet of Major). Served with the expedition to China in 1860, and was present at Sinho, actions near Tangchow, and surrender of Pekin (Medal with Clasp). Served in the Afghan war in 1878-79, and was present at the capture of the Peiwar Kotal ( CB., and Medal with Clasp).

2nd Lieut. 22nd June 1853 (RA); Lieut. 30th May 1854 (RA); Capt. 1st April 1860 (RA); Bt.-Major, 9th April 1861; Major, 5th July 1872 (RA); Bt.-Lieut. Col. 5th Jan. 1872; Lieut.-Col. 12th May 1879 (RA); Bt.-Col. 1st Oct. 1877; Col. Commandant, 16th Nov. 1899 (RA); Maj. General, 1st Oct. 1887; Lieut. General, 25th Nov. 1892; General, 5th Jan. 1902.

Brigade Major of Artillery, Rajpootana Field Force, March 1858 to March 1859.  C.B. 19th Nov. 1879.  Half Pay, 15th Feb. 1880.  Assistant Adjutant & Quarter Master General, Woolwich District, 16th Feb. 1880 to 15th Feb. 1885.  Col. on Staff (Commanding Royal Artillery) Southern District, 1st May 1885 to 30th Sept. 1887.  Brig.-Gen. (Commanding Royal Artillery) Southern District, 1st Oct. 1887 to 14th April 1890.  Governor, Royal Military Academy, 15th April 1890.  K.C.B. 3rd June 1893.  Lieut. Tower of London, 5th Jan 1900.  Retired, 4th August 1902.

He married 1st, 2nd June 1864, Anne Douglas (c1834-1867), Daughter of Sylvester Douglas Stirling of Glenbervie, with whom he had two children: Anne Douglas (1865), and Charlotte Dorothea Willie (1867-1956).

He married 2nd, 14th July 1869, Anna Christian (c1836-1916), Daughter of William Stirling of Kippendavie, with whom he had seven children: Charles1 (1871-1914), Agnes (1872-1966), Evelyn Christian (1874-1893), William2 (1876-1949), Mary Olive (1878-1963), Frances Graham (c1882-1964), Walter Andrew3 (1883-1972).

He died on the 1st April 1906.


1Major Charles  Stirling was born 1st March 1871 in Hampshire; Educated at Wellington College, and Royal Military Academy, Woolwich; m 22nd August 1905, Amy daughter of Baron Cranworth. He served in the South Africa War 1899-1902.-Took part in the operations in the Orange Free State Feb. to May 1900, including operations at Paardeberg (17th to 26th Feb.); actions at Popular Grove and Karee Siding; actions at Houtnek (Thoba Mountain), Vet River (5th and 6th May) and Zand River. In the Transvaal in May and June 1900, including actions near Johannesburg, Pretoria and Diamond Hill (11th and 12th June). Operations in the Transvaal west of Pretoria (Aug. and Sept. 1900). In Orange River Colony (June to 29th Nov. 1900). including actions at Wittebergen (1st to 29th July) and Bothaville. In Cape Colony, south of Orange River, Nov. and Dec. 1900. Again in the Transvaal Jan. to 31st May 1902. Again in Orange River Colony March 1901 to Jan. 1902. And again in Cape Colony 30th Nov. 1900 to Feb. 1901. Despatches, Lond. Gaz., 10th Sept. 1901. Queens medal with five clasps, and Kings medal with two clasps. Brev. of Maj. Placed on the list of Officers considered qualified for Staff employment, in consequence of service on the Staff in the Field.

2nd Lieut.(RA) 14th Feb. 1890; Lieut.(RA) 14th Feb. 1893; Capt.(RA) 23rd June 1900; Bt.-Maj. 29th Nov. 1900; Major,(RA) 9th June 1907.

Deputy Assistant Adjutant and Quarter Master General, 6th Division, 7th July 1903.
Passed Staff College, 1910.
General Staff Officer, 2nd Grade, East Anglian Division, 8th March 1913.

He died 19th November 1914.


2 Brig.-Gen. William  Stirling, C.M.G., D.S.O., R.A. was born 15th March 1876 in Hampshire; Educated at Wellington College, and Royal Military Academy, Woolwich; m 1915, Kathleen Henrietta, daughter of Lt.-Col. John Arthur Thomas Garrett, of Bishop's Court, Exeter.

Adjutant, R.A., 28th May1906 to 21stOctober 1906; 19th Sept. 1907 to 3rd Feb 1908; 10th Nov. 1908 to 20th Oct. 1911.

Commanding Royal Artillery, 50th Northumbrian Division 1918-1919.
Instructor Senior Officers' school, Belgaum, 1921.
Commandant school of artillery 1922-1926.
Commanding Royal Artillery, 2nd Division, Aldershot 1928-1932.
2nd Lieut. 21st March 1896; Lieut. 21st March 1899; Capt. 8th Jan. 1902; Major, 26th Aug. 1912; Lt.-Col. 30th Dec. 1916; Col., R.F.A.,  30th Dec. 1920.

Mentioned in Despatches.

C.M.G. (1919); D.S.O. (Lond.Gaz. 1/1/1917).
Retired as Brig.-Gen. 1932.

He died 31st October 1949.


3 Brigadier Walter Andrew Stirling, D.S.O., M.C. was born 5th August 1883; Educated at Wellington College, and Royal Military Academy, Woolwich; m 3rd June 1914, Louie Rosa Marguerita daughter of  J. V. Faber, K.C.D., Consul-General for Denmark in London.

2nd Lieut. 24th Dec. 1902; Lieut. 24th Dec 1905; Capt. 30th Oct. 1914; Major, 24th April 1916; Lt.-Col. 1923.
Seconded to S. Nigeria Rgt., W.A.F.F., 1907-1909; took part in Niger-Cross River Expedition.
Adjutant, 3rd N. Mid. Brigade, R.F.A., 1912-1915.
Commanded Battery, 18th Division, Oct. 1915-Feb. 1917.
Brigade Major, R.A., 18th Division, Feb. 1917-March 1919.
Army of the Rhine, March-April 1919.
D.S.O. (Lond. Gaz. 1/1/1918)

M.C. (Lond. Gaz. 10/1/1917). Citation reads; "Captain Walter Andrew Stirling, R.F.A. For conspicuous gallantry in action. He went forward, in spite of a very heavy enemy barrage, and continually observed the fire of his battery, thereby contributing greatly to the success of the operation".

Retired 1923.
Re-Employed 1939.
Retired as Brigadier 1943.
He died, 1972.

Source: (Various Army Lists, The V.C. and D.S.O. by Creagh and Humphris, IGI, Kelly's, Burke's, Free BMD, ScotlandsPeople.)

SIR JAMES STIRLING - 1800 John Kay Etching

SIR JAMES STIRLING, BART., LORD PROVOST OF EDINBURGH, in his robes. The son of a fishmonger, he was the sole architect of his considerable fortune, which began to acquire in Jamaica, and continued on with banking in Edinburgh.

Sir James Stirling - 1800

The artist who produced this engraving was JOHN KAY (1742 - 1830), a notable Scottish miniature-painter and caricaturist. Although he spent the first 20 years of his adult life as a barber, he was encouraged by customers and friends in his talent for sketching and drawing, particularly by a certain customer, who helped to finance his transition from barber to full-time artist.

Kay began publishing his caricatures at age 42, but his etched portraits were much more than mere caricatures of his subjects. They were highly detailed and accurate, though somewhat stylized, depictions of his subjects. His etchings of prominent citizens of Scotland and England numbered nearly 900 plates, as he worked from his print shop in Parliament Square in Edinburgh for nearly a half century.

Image 2

This portrait of Sir James Stirling is a very rare steel engraving from a 1838 book, "A SERIES OF ORIGINAL PORTRAITS AND CARICATURE ETCHINGS BY THE LATE JOHN KAY". The image area is 4-3/4" x 7-3/4" on 8" x 10-3/4" paper with a blank reverse side.


James Stirling BioJames Stirling 1805-1883

Born on 24 May 1805, Stirling was at first destined for the Bar, and studied at the universities of Gottingen and Glasgow with this in mind. Eyesight problems put paid to this career however and he returned home to enter the long-established family dyeing business.

He retired early, in 1849, and lived at Cordale, beside the River Leven, then at Rockend, Helensburgh. A passionate seaman, he owned a schooner, the Fiery Cross.

In 1865, as a Whig, he stood unsuccessfully for parliamentary seat of Dumbartonshire. He and his rival, Patrick Smollett, each polled 574 votes but the matter was decided in Smollett's favour. Stirling died on 19 May 1883.

SCOTCHMEN are said to think, and sometimes to speak, too much of their pedigree, but the fault, if fault it be, would be venial could we all do so with as good reason as James Stirling. His branch of the Stirlings claim - and there is ground for thinking, claim justly - that they represent the old line of Stirlings of Cadder, the undoubted chiefs of the name, or Stirlings of that ilk, owners of Cadder and other lands under William the Lion. If this be so, Mr. Stirling could show a male descent of seven hundred years, a feat that few untitled families in Europe can perform. But the point has been disputed, and the family need scarcely care to press it, for they can show an undisputed descent that is even rarer.

Their family is the oldest of our Glasgow notables. They have seen every stone in Glasgow laid except the High Kirk. They found this a little country town, and they have stayed to see it grown, by the help of them and others like them, a hundredfold. Through near three centuries, through eight generations from father to son, they have been merchants here of good standing and high social position. With such a pedigree, unequalled in or perhaps out of Scotland, and with a hereditary character for straightforwardness and honour, the Stirlings of Glasgow can afford to be content.

Robert Stirling of Lettyr, or Lettyr Stirling, fell in a feud in 1537. His son, John Stirling of Lettyr, would seem to have settled in Glasgow, for he married a Glasgow wife, Beatrix Elphinstone of Blythswood, sister of our famous Provost Sir George Elphinstone, and he had a son and a son-in-law notaries, and two sons merchants, in Glasgow, where there have been merchants of them ever since. Fourth in descent from him, through a line of merchants in Glasgow, were three brothers, John Stirling, provost of Glasgow in 1728; William Stirling, surgeon in Glasgow (father of Walter Stirling, the founder of Stirling's Library, the first free public library in Scotland); and Walter Stirling of Shirva (father of Sir Walter Stirling of Faskine, a distinguished naval officer, whose grandson is the present Sir Walter George Stirling of Faskine, Bart.).

"Honest and kind Provost John," being unluckily bailie during the Shawfield Riot in 1725, was one of those on whom the blind wrath of the Government fell. He and the other innocent magistrates were dragged under a guard of dragoons to the Tolbooth of Edinburgh, and, being there released on bail, were met on their way home by two hundred of the citizens on horseback, and escorted into the town amid ringing of bells and general rejoicing. Provost John and his brother Shirva were of those who nursed the infant foreign trade of Glasgow. They are named by McUre as in "the great company that arose undertaking the trade to Virginia, Carriby Islands, Barbadoes, New England, St. Christopher's, Montserrat, and other colonies in America" - an imposing list of markets out of proportion to the "great companies'" small ventures. On a different scale were the operations of the provost's son.

William Stirling, merchant in Glasgow, the founder of William Stirling & Sons, "the celebrated William Stirling," ranks with the four young Virginians among the founders of the mercantile greatness of Glasgow. The impulse that they gave to its foreign commerce, he, as much as any one, gave to its native industry. The printing of cloth has long been one of our staple trades, and William Stirling, if not our first printer, was the first to print on a large scale. He began in a small way by buying India cottons in London, and getting them printed there for the Glasgow market, and in the "Glasgow Journal" of 10th May, 1756, he advertises as on sale at his warehouse above the Cross "A neat parcel of printed cottons of the newest patterns, lately imported from London." But he had not been long content to print merely at second hand, and years before this he had had a field of his own. About 1750 he had formed the firm of "William Stirling & Co.," with works at Dalsholm, on the Kelvin, where he printed handkerchiefs, and afterwards garments and furniture. The purity of the Kelvin was all that could be desired, but as the business grew, labour at Dalsholm grew scarce and dear, and in 1770 Stirling lifted his graith and moved to the secluded valley of the Leven. There wages would be low, for work was scarce, and Loch Lomond would yield an unlimited supply, summer and winter, of water purer even than the Kelvin. The Stirlings had already found out the Leven. As far back as 1728 Stirling's uncle, Surgeon William, and his co-partners in a bleaching concern, had acquired what McUre, with the inaccuracy that never fails him, calls "Dalwhern's bleaching fields." Immediately above this William Stirling, in co-partnery with his sons, under the new firm of "William Stirling & Sons," feued Cordale for a print field from Campbell of Stonefield, and he and his successors have been printing away there ever since. Work is not scarce nowadays on the Leven, nor wages low, but Loch Lomond still filters the drainage of a wide and wet area, and along the "crystal flood" that Smollett sang, a great army of printers and dyers is now camped, of which the Stirlings led the van.

William Stirling died in 1777. He was just sixty, and had been but seven years on the Leven. But he had lived long enough to leave to his successors a fine fortune and a fine business. He had five fingers that seldom failed to grasp success, ingenuity, good sense, energy, patience, and thrift. By his wife, a daughter of sturdy old Provost Andrew Buchanan of Drumpellier (with Elizabeth, mother of Sir William Hamilton and of "Cyril Thornton," and Agnes, mother of Andrew and Dugald John Bannatyne), he had three sons, Andrew Stirling of Drumpellier, John Stirling of Tullichewan, and James Stirling of Stair.

These were the "sons" of William Stirling & Sons, and they pushed the business with hereditary spirit. In the course of time they felt a want of elbow-room at Cordale, and they acquired Dalquhurn from the representatives of Surgeon William's old copartnery. This was in 1791, and the firm has used both places ever since. But their own business was not enough for the energies of the brothers. The Monkland Canal had been begun about the same time as Cordale, but its promoters had not so well as William Stirling counted the cost. They were unable to finish the work, and the American War and the havoc it wrought in Glasgow made it hopeless to raise more capital. Finally, in 1782, the concern was brought to the hammer, and the Stirlings, who were already shareholders, bought it. They pushed their new undertaking with the family energy. They got a fresh Act of Parliament, they finished the part that was lying half made, and they extended the Canal east to the Calder and (in conjunction with the great Canal Company) west to Port Dundas. Canals are of small account nowadays. Many of us never heard of the Monkland Canal, nor even of its famous incline at Blackhill. But in those pre-railroad pre-Macadam days the opening of the Monkland Canal was like the discovery of the great Monkland mineral field. The connection of the Stirlings with this important work is still dimly recalled by "Stirling Road," which they formed as an approach to the canal basin beside the Martyr's Stone at the Townhead.

John Stirling, the second son, who died in 1811, carried on the Glasgow family. His eldest son William, born 1780, died 1847, married Margaret Hamilton, daughter of James Ritchie of Craigton and Busbie, one of "the four young men" who were said to have made the fortunes of Glasgow. By her he had sixteen children, five of whom - William, Charles, Richard, Hamilton (Mrs. Alston), and Charlotte Lilias - survive. The eldest of the family, John, a gallant young officer, was killed in action in India. James, the second son, was born on 24th May, 1805, and died on 19th May, 1883. His first intention was to go to the Bar, and with that view he studied at the University of Gottingen for two years, and in the University of Glasgow, but his eyes failed to stand the strain, and he entered the family business. He was a man of moderate views, and in 1849, having made money enough for his wants, he retired. For years he lived at his old ancestral house of Cordale, beside the rushing Leven. Latterly he resided at Rockend, Helensburgh, drawn there, probably, by its convenience for yachting, for he was passionately fond of the sea, and the memories are still green of his schooner, the "Fiery Cross," and of Jamieson, his skipper. Few men were so much loved by those who had the honour and privilege of knowing him, as James Stirling, and few men better deserved that love, for in his dealings with every one there was a kindly courtesy and consideration all the more valued on account of their rarity nowadays. He had truly the "grand manner" which, we are told, is fast becoming as extinct as the dodo; and with him this grand manner sprang from the heart as well as the head. He was as incapable of a deliberate rudeness or of hurting the feelings of another as of an act of meanness, and bore, if ever man did, without reproach the grand old name of gentleman.

He was a very able man. He had read much and knew books well, and he had travelled far and knew men possibly still better. His charming "Letters from the Slave States," and a pamphlet or two on the currency, are, alas! all we have from his pen, but those who have enjoyed his conversation can tell how cultured and powerful his mind was. Like his father before him, James Stirling was all his life a staunch Whig. With some other people, he may have thought that of late years the pace was becoming somewhat furious and that the reins were perhaps not in the safest hands, but he never wavered in his allegiance to his party. In 1865 he fought a great fight with Mr. Patrick Boyle Smollett for Dumbartonshire, which resulted in their each polling 574 votes. The matter was ultimately settled by a vote for Mr. Stirling being withdrawn and Mr. Smollett being returned.

There are no Stirlings now in William Stirling & Sons, but any notice of a member of that firm would be incomplete without some mention of the trade which owes so much to them and to which they owe so much. About the year 1780 Mr. James Monteith of Anderston (father of Henry Monteith) warped the first web of pure cotton ever spun in Scotland, and very soon after the spinning-frame and power-loom coming into general use, it became of importance that the printing and dyeing trades should keep pace with the production of cloth. In 1783 the first Turkey-red work in Great Britain was started at Barrowfield by the ubiquitous David Dale and George Macintosh, to whom, and to his son Charles, Glasgow owes a debt of gratitude that has never been fully recognized. Mons. Papillon, a Frenchman, who was brought from Rouen to teach them the art, quarrelled with and left them in a very short time. In 1805 the Barrowfield works were sold to Henry Monteith, whose successors to this day carry on the same business at Blantyre under the firm of Henry Monteith & Co., which is by far the oldest of all our Turkey-red houses. The only other firms that now carry on the business in the neighbourhood of Glasgow are Messrs. Neil Matheson & Reid, of the Eastfield Dyeworks, Rutherglen; T. P. Miller & Co., of Cambuslang; David Millar & Co., of the Clydeselale Dye Works, Rutherglen; and J. & W. Campbell, of Pollokshaws. The process is long and costly, and there never were many firms in the trade; but among those who were Turkey-red dyers, but have given it up, were the Dalmarnock Turkey-Red Company at Rutherglen Bridge, the chief partner of which was George Brown of Capelrig; Miller & Higginbotham, who at their works which were at Cathcart went under the firm of Peter McCallum & Co.; Muir Brown & Co., at the Strathclyde works; Fleming Watson & Nairn, at Springfield; William Miller & Sons, at Dalmarnock; and Macdonald & Co., at Barrhead. In England, Messrs. F. Steiner & Co., of Accrington, carry on a large Turkey-red business, but excepting them and the existing firms above mentioned the whole of the Turkey-red dyeing in Great Britain has centred in the Vale of Leven, where it is carried on by three Glasgow houses - the leviathans of the trade - Messrs. William Stirling & Sons, John Orr Ewing & Co., and Archibald Orr Ewing & Co. These three firms employ among them seven thousand hands, pay £255,000 a year in wages, and can turn out annually five and a half million pieces of cloth, and nearly twenty million pounds of yarn. As has been said, this strath has for more than a hundred years had a great printing trade, and before that it had a bleaching trade. Labour was easily and cheaply got from the surrounding Highlands, and the purity and softness of the water of the Leven made it peculiarly suitable for manufacturing purposes. The pioneers of this industry on the Leven were Messrs. Turnbull & Co., of the Croftingea works, who began to dye Turkey-red in 1827. They were followed in the year 1828 by William Stirling & Sons, at Dalquhurn, who have ever since been a leading house in the trade.

The next oldest of the three firms on the Leven is John Orr Ewing & Co. Mr. John Orr Ewing, a man of great force of character and a most able merchant, began business in the Croftingea works in 1835, and subsequently acquired the Levenfield works which had belonged to John Todd & Co. Archibald Orr Ewing & Co., of Levenbank, Milton, and Dillichip works, is the youngest of the Turkey-red houses. The founder, Mr. Archibald Orr Ewing of Ballikinrain, M.P. for Dumbartonshire, commenced business in 1845 in the Levenbank works. These works had been built as a printwork so far back as 1784 by Messrs. Watson & Arthur, and had long been worked by John Stewart & Co. In 1850 the Milton works were bought from John Todd of Levenfield, at one time of Todd & Shortridge, a well-known firm in its day. These also were old-established works, having been built in 1772. In 1866 Archibald Orr Ewing bought the Dillichip works from the trustees of Mr. Robert Arthur.

If we except the Messrs. Steiner we may say that practically the Turkey-red trade of Great Britain is an exclusively Glasgow industry, and from the Vale of Leven comes three fourths of the Turkey-red cloth and yarn dyed in the kingdom. Our dyers have formidable competitors, but they may be trusted to keep the great trade which their brains and pluck have won.

"The Memoirs and Potraits of 100 Glasgow Men" - Originally Published in 1886 by James MacLehose

Captain Sir Walter Stirling of Faskine was born May 7, 1718 in Sherva, Fife, Scotland, and died November 24, 1786 in Red Lion Square, London.

Captain Sir Walter Stirling of Faskine                          Dorothy Willing
Captain Sir Walter Stirling of Faskine 1718-1786                Dorothy Willing 1735-1782       


Sir Walter Stirling of Faskine went to sea at an early age. . . . He entered the Navy, and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant in 1745. In 1753-4 he was engaged in commerce, trading to Philadelphia [where, on October 31, 1753,  he married Dorothy Willing, born August 3, 1735, daughter of Charles Willing and Anne Shippen.] . . . In 1757 he was appointed to the command of a sloop of war; in 1759 he was promoted to the rank of post captain and given the command of the Lynn, a 40-gun ship; in 1761 he was given command of the Charles WillingLowestoffe. His first command after peace was in 1763, when he was given the Rainbow, of 40 guns, and ordered to the North American Station, where he continued till 1766. In 1770 he was appointed to the Dunkirk, of 60 guns, the flagship of Commodore Mackenzie, senior officer on the Jamaica Station. In 1778 he was appointed a regulating captain on the impress service. In 1780 he was given command of the Gilbraltar, of 80 guns, one of the squadron sent to the West Indies, under the orders of Sir Samuel Hood to reinforce Lord Rodney. The expedition against the Dutch Island of St. Eustatia, taking place soon after his arrival on that station, he was chosen to be the welcome messenger of the Success, and in consequence he received the honour of knighthood. In 1781 he was appointed to the command at the Nore, and hoisted his broad pennant, as Commodore, on board the Coquestador, removing afterwards to the Prince Edward, of 60 guns. He left this command before the end of 1782, and in the same year was appointed to the Duke, of 80 guns, under Admiral Kempenfelf. [Also in 1782, his wife died on September 20 in Drumpellier, Lanarkshire, Scotland. - ENF] Soon after, in action with the French, with an inferior force, they captured many transports full of troops bound for India.

Excerpt from: Thomas Willing Stirling, The Stirlings of Cadder, published 1933

Charles Willing 1710-1754    

Sir Walter Stirling had been a dashing naval officer who had wooed and won the daughter of a wealthy Philadelphian merchant, Charles Willing. Somewhat against the family's wishes he brought his Dorothea back to live in London, where she charmed his peers. He had a distinguished career, having been made "The Regulating Captain of the Impress at the Tower," knighted for naval pursuits against the Dutch and then appointed Commander-in-Chief at Nore. [Dorothy's daughter] liked to tell the story of how her father had lost the chance to be Governor of Halifax because he had been visiting her in Scotland when the offer came in. Her young sons [i.e. Walter and Dorothy's grandsons], however, were more impressed with the story of how Grandfather had persuaded the reluctant Nelson family to allow young Horatio to enter the navy.

It was a matter of pride that King George III, after reviewing Sir Walter's ships at the Nore, was so impressed that he had offered to make him a baronet - which he declined.

Excerpt from: Pamela Statham-Drew, James Stirling Admiral and Founding Governor of Western Australia
Biography published in 2003 by the University of Western Australia Press

Sir Walter was father of Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Stirling and grandfather of Sir James Stirling

Description of the painting of Walter:

Artist James Northcote; National Maritime Museum, London

A half-length portrait in captain's, over three years, full-dress uniform, 1774-87. The sitter wears his own hair, powdered a scratch wig and holds a telescope in his left hand. At an advanced age, in 1780, he was Captain of the Gibraltar, 80 guns, under Sir Samuel Hood and was present at Rodney's capture of St Eustatius in the West Indies from the Dutch in 1781. He was selected to take home dispatches and was knighted on arrival. In 1782, he was Commodore at the Nore. The background consists of rock with a glimpse of the sea on the left. The portrait is inscribed "Sir Walter Stirling of Faskine, Commander-in-Chief at the Nore 1781-d.1786". The artist was a pupil and assistant of Reynolds, and practiced portraiture at Plymouth until 1777, when he went to Italy to study before settling in London in 1781. The artist's signature is unseen.

Painting of Dorothy:

John Wollaston, Dorothy Willing (Mrs. Walter Stirling), about 1752.

More information about the pictures of Dorothy and Charles may be found at:
Biography submitted by Elspeth Flood

Ross Shaw Sterling


Ross Shaw Sterling (1875-1949), governor of Texas, son of Benjamin Franklin and Mary Jane (Bryan) Sterling, was born near Anahuac, Texas, in February 1875. Biographical sources give different specific birthdates of February 11 and February 22. He attended public schools and farmed until about 1896. He opened a feed store at Sour Lake in 1903, and during the next several years he also entered the banking business by purchasing a number of banks in small towns. In 1903 he became an oil operator and in 1910 bought two wells, which developed into the Humble Oil and Refining Company. The company was officially organized in 1911, and Sterling was president. In 1918 he also was president and owner of the Dayton-Goose Creek Railway Company.

Governor Ross Sterling

Texas Governor Ross Shae Sterling

In 1925 he sold his Humble interests and started developing real estate in the vicinity of Houston. He bought the Houston Dispatch and the Houston Post in 1925 and 1926 and subsequently combined them as the Houston Post-Dispatch, which later became the Houston Post. Sterling was chairman of the Texas Highway Commission in 1930 and was instrumental in highway development in Texas, including the implementation of the 100-foot right-of-way for highways. On January 20, 1931, he was inaugurated governor of Texas. In September 1931, during the Great Depression, he called a special session of the legislature to deal with the emergency in agriculture. The Texas Cotton Acreage Control Law of 1931-32 was designed to cut cotton acreage in the state, but it was declared unconstitutional and never went into effect. Because rulings of the Railroad Commission regulating oil proration in East Texas were being ignored, Sterling placed four counties under martial law and shut down all oil production temporarily. Later the courts ruled that he had exceeded his authority by the declaration of martial law. Sterling was defeated by Miriam A. Ferguson in his race for a second term as governor. (Click on image for full size photo)


Ross Shaw Sterling gives first speech in campaign for office of governor of Texas

Ross S. Sterling, governor of Texas, making his first speech
in his campaign for the office of governor, 1930
(Click on image for full size photo) 


In 1933 Sterling returned to Houston, where he appeared little in public life, but in a few years had built another fortune in oil. He was president of the Sterling Oil and Refining Company from 1933 to 1946. He was president of the American Maid Flour Mills and the R. S. Sterling Investment Company and was chairman of the Houston National Bank and the Houston-Harris County Channel Navigation Board. Sterling married Maud Abbie Gage on October 10, 1898; they were parents of five children. Among his philanthropies were the gift of his La Porte home to the Houston Optimist Club for a boys' home, establishment of a boys' camp in memory of Ross Sterling, Jr., who died in 1924, and the contribution of $100,000 to Texas Christian University. He was a Democrat and a Mason. Sterling died in Fort Worth on March 25, 1949, and was buried in Glenwood Cemetery in Houston.

Editors Note: Governor Sterling appears to be descended from James Sterling ( ~1750- ) and Margaret Love of York County, South Carolina. Quite possibly related to John Sterling of Newberry County, SC as York and Newberry are only 50 miles apart. Research continues.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Houston Post, March 26, 1949. Henrietta M. Larson and Kenneth Wiggins Porter, History of Humble Oil and Refining Company (New York: Harper, 1959). Ross Shaw Sterling Papers, Barker Texas History Center, University of Texas at Austin. Vertical Files, Barker Texas History Center, University of Texas at Austin. Who's Who in America (1934-35).

JAMES HUTCHISON STIRLING, (1820-1909), Scottish philosopher, was born at Glasgow on the 22nd of June 1820. He was educated at Glasgow University, where he studied medicine and philosophy. For a short time he practiced as a doctor in Wales, but gave up his profession in order to Continue his philosophical studies in Germany and France. From 1888 to 1890 he was Gifford lecturer at the university of Edinburgh and published his lectures in 1890 (Philosophy and Theology).

He was an LL.D. of Edinburgh University, and foreign member ofthe Philosophical Society of Berlin. He died in March 1909.

His principal works are:

The Secret of Hegel (i86; new ed. 1893); Sir William Hamilton: The Philosophy of Pence p- lion; a translation of Schwegler’s Goschichte der Philosophic (1867; 12th ed., 1893); Jerrold, Tennyson and Macaulay, &c. (1868); On Materialism (x868); As Regards Protoplasm (1869; 2nd ed., 1872); Lectures on the Philosophy of Law (1873); Burns in Drama (1878); Text-Book to Kant (1881); Philosophy in the Poets; Darwinianism; Workmen and Work (1894); What IS Thought? Or the Problem of Philosophy; By Way of a Conclusion So Far (1900); The Categories (1903). Of these the most important is The Secret of Hegel, which is admitted, both in England and in Germany, to be among the most scholarly and valuable contributions to Hegelian doctrine and to modern philosophy in general.

In the preface to the new edition he explains that he was first drawn to the study of Hegel by seeing the name in a review, and subsequently heard it mentioned with awe and reverence by two German students. He set himself at once to grapple with the difficulties and to unfold the principles of the Hegelian dialectic, and by his efforts he introduced an entirely new spirit into English philosophy. Closely connected with the Secret is the Text-Book to Kant, which comprises a translation of the Critique with notes and a biography. In these two works Dr Stirling endeavoured to establish an intimate connection between Kant and Hegel, and even went so far as to maintain that Hegel’s doctrine is merely the elucidation and crystallization of the Kantian system.

"The secret of Hegel," he says in the preliminary notice to his great work, "may be indicated at shortest thus: Hegel made explicit the concrete universal that was implicit in Kant." The sixth part of the Secret contains valuable criticisms on the Hegelian writings of Schwegler, Rosenkranz and Haym, and explains by contrast much that has been definitely stated in the preceding pages. Of Dr Stirling’s other works the most important is the volume of Gifford Lectures, in which he developed a theory of natural theology in relation to philosophy as a whole. As Regards Protoplasm contains an attempted refutation of the Essay on the Physical Basis of Life by Huxley.

The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907:21).Volume XIV. The Victorian Age, Part Two has this to say about Stirling ...

"The first English work directly due to the influence of Hegel was The Secret of Hegel (1865) by James Hutchison Stirling. Educated as a physician, he first heard of Hegel in accidental conversation. Hegel was described as the reconciler of philosophy and religion, and Stirling, fascinated by the thought, soon afterwards threw up his practice, settled for some years on the continent-in Germany and in France-and devoted himself with ardour to philosophical study, especially to the mastery of Hegel’s system.

He returned to publish the results of his work; and, although he wrote many books afterwards-especially an important Text-Book to Kant (1881)-The Secret of Hegel remains his greatest work. It consists of translation, commentary, introduction and original discourse; and it shows the process by which the author approached and grappled with his subject. Sometimes it is as difficult as its original; more frequently, it illuminates Hegel both by a persistent effort of thought and by occasional flashes of insight.

Its style is characteristic. Altogether lacking in the placid flow of the academic commentator, and suggesting the influence of Carlyle, it is irregular, but forceful and imaginative, a fit medium for the thinking which it expressed. What Stirling meant by the 'secret' of Hegel was presumably the relation of Hegel’s philosophy to that of Kant.

In Hegel’s construction he found a method and point of view which justified the fundamental ideas of religion, and, at the same time, made clear the one-sidedness of the conceptions of the 'age of enlightenment,' at the end of which Kant stood, still hampered by its negations and abstractions. And Stirling’s favourite and most lively criticisms were directed against the apostles of the enlightenment and their followers of the nineteenth century."

Sci-Fi Author S. M. StirlingNoted Science Fiction Author Stephen Michael Stirling was born in 1953 in Toronto, and now lives in New Mexico.

He enjoys collaborating with other authors. He has worked with such names as Anne McCaffery, Jerry Pournelle, David Drake and Harry Turtledove as well as fellow Canadians James Doohan, Shirley Meier and Karen Wehrstein.

His latest books are The Domination (which combines his first three Draka novels), The Reformer (with David Drake, part II of the Raj and Center series), and The Privateer (with James Doohan, part II of the Flight Engineer series)

In the Draka trilogy, Stirling creates a parallel universe, where a nation founded on slavery and the United States battle for domination of the world. The trilogy was recently republished in one huge volume as The Domination. Stirling has also written Drakon, a novel of a Draka warrior hurled into our world, and edited a companion volume, Drakas! Among his collaborations are the popular General series with David Drake, the novel, The Children's Hour, with Jerry Pournelle, and the national bestseller, The City Who Fought, with Anne McCaffrey.

His newest book is titled "On the Oceans of Eternity".

On Mr. Stirling posted a brief note about his interests - "I'm a writer by trade, Canadian by citizenship, living in the US at present. My hobbies are mostly related to the craft -- I love history, anthropology and archaeology, and am interested in the sciences. The martial arts are my main physical hobby."

William Warren Sterling - Texas RangerSTERLING, WILLIAM WARREN (1891-1960). William Warren Sterling, lawman, son of Edward A. and Mary (Chamberlain) Sterling, was born near Belton, Texas, on April 27, 1891, and spent his early years on his family's ranch before they moved to Beaumont in 1901.

He entered Texas A&M at seventeen and two years later was working on ranches near Falfurrias and in Hidalgo County. During 1915-16, when political unrest in Mexico spilled over the Rio Grande border, he was a posseman and scout for the Third United States Cavalry in Hidalgo and Cameron counties. During World War I he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Ninth Texas Infantry. Afterward he was in Mirando City as deputy sheriff and justice of the peace during the oil boom in Webb County.

In 1927 Governor Dan Moody appointed him captain, Company D, Texas Rangers, and he was sent immediately to the boomtown of Borger. In 1928 his ranger headquarters was moved to Falfurrias. About this time the sculptor Gutzon Borglum used Sterling as the model for his planned Texas Ranger statue.

In 1929 Sterling was in Pettus when an oil boom started there, and he helped stop the lawlessness. During the administration of Governor Ross S. Sterling he served as adjutant general (commander of the Texas Rangers and the Texas National Guard); in this capacity he closed the Red River bridge at Denison during the much publicized Red River bridge controversy between Oklahoma and Texas in 1931.

When Governor Miriam "Ma" Ferguson took office in 1933, Adjutant General W. W. Sterling resigned his office. Forty Rangers, including Captain Hamer, left with him. As a colonel during World War II he helped set up selective service for the Eighth Service Command. Sterling managed the Driscoll ranches in South Texas and later appraised ranches. His book, Trails and Trials of a Texas Ranger, was published in 1959. He was married to Zora Lou Eckhardt, and they had two daughters. Sterling died on April 26, 1960, and was buried in Seaside Memorial Park, Corpus Christi.

William Warren Sterling book - Trails and Trials of a Texas Ranger

William Warren Sterling appears to be the great-great grandson of Levi Sterling of Bucks County, PA a Soldier of the Revolutionary War

1 Levi Sterling b: 1759
    2 Seneca E. Sterling b: 1793 d: 1868
      + Mary Blaker b: 1798
        3 Jesse Sterling b: 1824 d: 1907
          + Isabel Allen
            4 Edward A. Sterling b: 1855 d: 1933
              + Mary Loudentia Chamberlain b: 1868
                5 William Warren Sterling b:Apr 27 1891 d: Apr 26 1960

(APRIL 27, 1891-APRIL 26, 1960)






Seaside Memorial Park (grave), Rober Drive and Ocean Drive, Corpus Christi, Texas - Placed 1969

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Austin American, April 27, 1960, August 28, 1969. Brooks County Texan, March 22, 1929. Cattleman, May 1960. Corpus Christi Caller and Daily Herald, February 15, 16, 27, 28, 1915. Oran Warder Nolen, "Col. W. W. Sterling: Cowman, Texas Ranger and a Prince among Men," Cattleman, June 1966. Vertical Files, Barker Texas History Center, University of Texas at Austin.


1981 Pritzker Laureate - Sir James Frazer Stirling

Sir James Stirling - Architect (1926-1992)James Frazer Stirling, 1926-1992, of Great Britain was one of that country's best-known architects particularly since his 1963 project at Leicester University, the engineering building. Born in Glasgow, Scotland, he took his architecture degree at Liverpool University, but set up his practice in London.

In addition to the Leicester project already mentioned, his other major works at the time he was awarded the Pritzker Prize included a training center for Olivetti in Hasselemere; a History Building for Cambridge University; an expansion of Rice University in Texas, and numerous low cost housing projects, and residences. Since 1981, he has completed a major social sciences center in Berlin; a Performing Arts Center for Cornell University; and such major museum projects as the Clore Gallery expansion for the Tate Gallery in London; the Arthur M. Sackler Museum, an addition to Harvard's Fogg Museum; and the Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart, Germany.

In an article written in 1979 for Contemporary Architects, Stirling said, "I believe that the shapes of a building should indicate—perhaps display—the usage and way of life of its occupants, and it is therefore likely to be rich and varied in appearance, and its expression is unlikely to be a building we did at Oxford some years ago, it was intended that you could recognize the historic elements of courtyard, entrance gate towers, cloisters; also a central object replacing the traditional fountain or statue of the college founder. In this way we hoped that students and public would not be disassociated from their cultural past. The particular way in which functional-symbolic elements are put together may be the "art" in the architecture."

"If the expression of functional-symbolic forms and familiar elements is foremost, the expression of structure will be secondary, and if structure shows, it is not in my opinion, the engineering which counts, but the way in which the building is put together that is

Udo Kulterman, writing in the same publication, said "Stirling's concept of contemporary architecture is concerned with the humanization of the environment. Humanistic considerations dominate all technological, economic and aesthetic preconceived ideas and ideologies. Architecture has to re-establish its own criteria for evaluation; for Stirling this obviously means creating in harmony with common sense, tradition, the existing environment, and a concern for people."

James Stirling talks to Tony Russell  of the BBC on 5 July 1986 (never broadcast) [MP3 files]

1 - Influence of father and Liverpool
2 - Architecture school and artistic influences
3 - Architecture and Technology
4 - Problems in planning public and private buildings

by Dr David C F Wright

Most of this essay originally formed part of a recorded article on Chopin given in 1972 but here is extended

Jane Wilhelmina Stirling of KippenrossBy far the most fascinating woman in Chopin's life was not George Sand, but Jane Stirling.

Jane Wilhelmina Stirling was born in July 1804 at Kippenross House, near Dunblane in Perthshire, the year before the battle of Trafalgar when Nelson defeated both the French and the Spanish. She was the youngest of thirteen children. Her first sister was married by the time Jane was two years old. Her mother died when she was only twelve and her father when she was sixteen, the year after the final defeat of Napoleon by Wellington. She passed in to the supervision of her sister, Katharine, now Mrs Erskine, who was thirteen years older than she was. Katharine had no children and was now a widow. She did not remarry and so was available to be a companion to Jane.

Jane had a clear head and was a typical Scotswoman, a very strong character. She was different as well. She attended parties and balls and, as she was exceedingly pretty, she had many proposals of marriage. Some say that she had over thirty such proposals, all of which she declined. She was particular and wished to remain single until she was certain of the right man. She remained sociable and went to the various functions but needed more than that. Kippenross House had a large library, a valuable collection of art and a Scottish harp. She was interested in all three and played the piano with clear skill.

In the second half of 1826 Katharine took her to Paris. They already had social contacts there and mixed with the French aristocracy as comfortably as they did with the Scottish. Thereafter they divided their annual social life between Scotland and Paris. Jane, particularly, became fluent in the French language and was a francophile. She was a wealthy woman having inherited from her parents. It was a time of French and British cooperation. In 1827 their combined fleets destroyed Turkish and Egyptian ships at Navarino.

They met Chopin and , as Jane as very attractive, he took her on as a pupil. She admired him and he her ... and she could pay his exorbitant fees. She was six years older than he was and, latterly, he unkindly regarded her as a middle-aged spinster. In 1844 he dedicated his two Nocturnes Opus 55 to her. Strangely, he recommended her to the cellist Franchomme. One would have thought that he wanted her to himself but Franchomme taught the cello and she had expressed a desire to learn to play that instrument. Did she play it side-saddle as was the custom of the day?

About this time there was the dreadful failure of the potato crop in Ireland and the subsequent Irish famine in which Britain did little to alleviate suffering.

Auguste Joseph Franchomme was born in Lille in 1808 and was four years younger than Jane. He was a cellist of distinction and wrote some works including a cello concerto. He died in Paris in 1884.

Whatever Jane's feelings she kept them to herself as George Sand, the eccentric cigar smoking socialist, was still reigning supreme in Chopin's life. But in 1846 Chopin's relationship with Sand was breaking up and he was living a semi-bachelor life. With Chopin's permission, Jane took on some of secretarial and other duties. Her social position meant that this service she afforded Chopin and the society in which he moved a great deal of good. She may also have suffered from loneliness and a sense of a lack of fulfilment and she was glad to be wanted and of service. She also had a crush on him. Perhaps, like Sand, she wanted to mother him and look after him. It is not unlikely that they became lovers for a while. What is clear is that she was a benevolent patroness. She kept him for some while. She was his agent and business manager. She arranged his concerts and particularly the Salle Pleyel concert. Only Katharine knew about the full implications of these arrangements.

Jane won the hearts of Chopin's parents. His sister, Louisa, also admired her and was grateful for what she was doing for Frederick. Over Christmas 1847, Jane sent Louisa a present, the Lady's Companion intended as a New Year's gift. But Chopin never talked of love for Jane. While he was grateful to her he may have found her too efficient and dominant but she had the right ideas. Chopin was to forget the past with all their traumas and he needed change. With her large family she could easily introduce Chopin to the well-to-do in London and elsewhere. It has been suggested that these introductions were her plan to get her family to meet him with a view to their approval of her possible marriage to him. But there were other problems. Scotland would not be suitable for a consumptive.

Chopin did not consider this. He was glad to have someone make plans for him and thus ease his anxious personality. He had been considering a move to London as Paris was no longer in love with him and he had made contact with the Athenaeum Club in Pall Mall where Elgar and Sir Ivor Atkins were later to become members.

Jane made the preparations for the Salle Pleyel concert on 16 February 1848 ensuring that the heating was as Chopin would wish it and that the concert hall was aired. She arranged the flowers so that an intimate feel could be enjoyed. Chopin, dressed as immaculately as ever, but clearly ill, played Mozart's Piano Trio in E with Alard and Franchomme. Then followed his Cello Sonata and other short pieces for solo piano. He only played an excerpt from his Barcarolle because he was too weak to play the more invigorating part. He took his bow and walked unassisted to his dressing room where he collapsed in Jane's arms, exhausted.

On Maundy Thursday, 20 April 1848 Chopin sailed to England. He rested a while in Folkestone before travelling to London where Jane had booked him in at lodgings at 10 Bentinck Street near Cavendish Square. He did not like London. It was grey. After Easter he moved to a superior apartment as 48 Dover Street, Piccadilly where he stayed until the end of July. Jane had provided him with his notepaper complete with his monogram and his favourite brand of drinking chocolate. Broadwoods sent over a piano as did Pleyels and Erards. And so his drawing room had three grand pianos. The landlord, seeing this extravagance, doubled the rent but that was no odds to Chopin as Jane paid it.

The year 1848 saw a wave of revolutions sweeping central and western Europe and the Second Republic was established in France.

But London waited to hear Chopin.

Chopin heard the major London orchestras perform and dismissed them unkindly. He called their performances like their roast dinners ... solid, strong and nothing else. He complained that they had no idea how to rehearse.

Nonetheless he played for Lady Gainsborough, Lady Blessington, the Athenaeum Club and on 15 May before Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Prince Albert went over to talk to him and the Queen spoke to him twice. Through Jane he was introduced to ' all the best people' ( what a pompous expression that is ). But he did not like their attitude to music.

His money was running out. Jane came to the rescue again. But he did not want to be beholden to her and did not ask her again. She was always at hand but Chopin was bored and tired of her. He said very unkind things about these two Scottish ladies. Yet he could not do without them. Jane insisted that he went on long rides in the country for his health and she was right, but Chopin could not take the jolting and bumping of the carriage.

He acquired a manservant called Daniel who was Irish but spoke French who accompanied him on his outings and carried him to his rooms. There were times when Chopin was incredibly weak.

Jane, possibly to further her own desires, suggested that Chopin visit Edinburgh as the London season was coming to an end. Chopin had lost all hope for himself and become fatalistic. He did not care where he was. Everywhere was miserable to him.

Twelve miles east of Edinburgh was Calder House where Jane had arranged that Chopin should stay . She had also organised Pleyel's to send a piano from London. Two of her brothers in law were told to look out for Chopin since much depended on them for the success of this venture. Chopin arrived after a twelve hour journey on the train from Euston and was spitting blood. The Highland air made matters worse. The only thing that kept him going was the prospect of concerts and the income from them. A successful concert might earn him 60 guineas. The doctor at Calder House was Polish now living in Edinburgh.

The Scottish ladies decided that the family would visit a relative who lived in a castle by the sea and, of course, Chopin had to go. They drove along the cliff roads in two vehicles, the sisters in one and Daniel and Chopin in the other. The horses of Chopin's coupe were frightened by something and the reins snapped and the vehicle careered down the slope. The coachman had been thrown out. The coach crashed against a tree on the edge of the cliff. Daniel pulled Chopin out.

The accident did not deter him from giving concerts but he kept changing his mind about details of what he was to play.. He went to Manchester by train to give a concert there and was put up in the home of a German Jew much to his disgust. His anti-semitism and extreme racism was decidedly evil. But another house guest was Jenny Lind. The concert was on 28 August. There were overtures by Weber, Rossini and Beethoven and sung excerpts from Italian opera. Between such items Chopin played his Andante spianato, the Second Scherzo and the Berceuse. He was so weak that he was carried on and off the stage. He was given good reviews but the general opinion was that he and his music were not understood. So wrote Charles Halle.

Jane Stirling, believing that Chopin's confidence was boosted and that this should continue, arranged a concert in Glasgow. She also arranged for him to stay with another widowed sister, Mrs Houston at Johnstone Castle, a few miles from the city. Chopin was again in a quandary as to what to play. The concert was on the afternoon on 27 September at the Merchants Hall complete with nobles and several members of the Stirling family. But the concert was badly attended. The Glasgow Herald proclaimed that Chopin and his music were hard to understand. Mrs Houston gave a grand reception to Prince and Princess Czartoryski from Vienna who were visiting London to escape political unrest and travelled to Scotland to hear Chopin. His next concert was at the Hopetoun Rooms in Edinburgh and the tickets were half a guinea. Jane purchased a hundred herself and distributed them as complimentary tickets. It was Chopin's last appearance in Scotland. He could not stay in Scotland living off Jane and the kind people who put him up in various castles and stately homes.

These people expected news of Chopin's engagement to Jane. But he did not propose and this was put down to his reticence. Rumours of a forthcoming marriage reached Paris and Warsaw and was the social gossip of the hour. Chopin did not want Jane. Although she had been his greatest friend and advocate, even if he did not see it that way, he was bored by her. He made all sorts of feeble excuses. He wrote to a friend, "A rich woman needs a rich husband."

It was Jane's family that broached the subject and this, presumably, at her request. The debate took place in October. Chopin was nervous and tried to express the simple view that it was only friendship.

Most women would have been insulted by the rejection and turn on the one that rejected her.

Not so, Jane.

She accepted it with a loving grace that reveals the fundamental goodness of her character although some biographers have labelled her a vampire and, to add to this inanity, called Sand a saint.

He could not winter in Scotland and so bade farewell to that country and gave a concert in London for a Polish charity. He took lodgings at 4 St James's Place, Piccadilly and he was ill. Doctors came and went. Jane and Mrs Erskine came to his aid and tried to prepare him for the next world, bringing their Bibles with them. But they were Protestants. Nonetheless they were genuine and kind people. Chopin complained to a friend that the Scottish ladies were getting on his nerves.

His last public appearance was at London's Guildhall on 16 November, 1848 where he had to be carried. He was very ill with a sick headache and a swollen face. People left doors open or were always coming and going and Chopin found this insufferable. He played and the Poles loved it. The rest of the audience were merely polite. He was carried back to his lodgings and to his bed.

He left London on 23 November and was in Paris the following day still grumbling about Jane and Mrs Erskine who pestered him so.

Back home in Paris he was, at first, surrounded by friends who looked after his needs. But cholera came and the summer heat was fierce. Many left Paris including Delphina who had promised to stay to help him but, one by one, Chopin's helpers left to escape disease and the infernal heat. They, along with Chopin, knew that he was dying and yet they deserted him.

Had Jane known about this she would have been there and stayed with him.

Chopin died on 17 October 1849. Jane's devotion remained unparalleled. She paid the total cost of the funeral which was a lavish affair. It was at the Church of the Madeleine and there were about 3,000 people there. Jane also paid Louisa's travelling expenses from Warsaw. To prevent possible difficulties she purchased all of Chopin's effects not wishing that any would fall into unsympathetic hands. She paid for his Pleyel piano to be shipped to Louisa in Warsaw and had some of his furniture, which she had purchased, shipped to Calder House. It was displayed in a special room which became known as the Chopin Museum. She also acquired the death mask by Clesinger. She had commissioned the Polish artist Kwiatkowski to produce an oil painting of him during his last weeks and this he did with Louisa, Princess Czartoryski and Grzymala in it, but she was not there.

On the first anniversary of his death she wrote to Louisa to send her some Polish soil which she scattered over Chopin's grave. She never forgot. Jane Carlyle called her Chopin's widow,

Louisa died in 1855. At Jane's death, four years later, she willed the museum to Justina Chopin and it was shipped to Warsaw. When Mrs Chopin died in 1861 it passed to her daughter Isabel but two years later much of it was destroyed during a Russian attack on Warsaw.

One item which still exists is a lock of his auburn hair which Jane had kept.

She evidently loved him and probably more so than anyone else.

And it makes Chopin's dismissal of her so grossly unfair.

Historical events that occurred in the final years of Jane's life were the rise of Darwinism and the Crimean War (1853 -6). She lived during the reigns of four monarchs, George III ( to 1820), George IV (1820- 30), William IV (1830-7) and Victoria (from 1837) and about twenty British prime ministers including William Pitt (1804-6), Wellington (1828-30), Melbourne (1835-41), Robert Peel, for two terms, Palmerston (1855-58). The leading novelists of her day were Dickens (1812-70), Dumas ( 1802-1870), the Brontes, Mary Shelley (1797-1851) and for the first 28 years of her life, Sir Walter Scott, who died in 1832. I have often wondered if she met him.

Jane died in 1859, ten years after Chopin's death. Her involvement with Chopin will always be the matter of unnecessary and suspicious speculation and clashing opinion but there is no doubt that she had his interests at heart and that her kindness was not appreciated. The fact that she did not become Mrs Chopin did not cause her to become offensive. She was loyal to the end and beyond.

Edith Stirling was a famous movie cowgirl.  We have a couple of pictures of her on her horses, but not much biographical information.  If you have more information about Edith, please let us know.

Edith Stirling - Movie Cowgirl.

Edith Stirling - Movie Cowgirl

Javan Leroy Sterling was born on 16 Dec 1852 in Brooklyn, Susquehanna, Pennsylvania.  His headstone lists the year of his birth as 1853 He died on 3 Apr 1927 in Scranton, Lackawanna, Pennsylvania.  He was buried after 3 Apr 1927 in Brooklyn Old Cemetery, Brooklyn, Susquehanna, Pennsylvania.

Javan Leroy Sterling & Sarah E. Watrous

Javan was a carpenter and wheelwright in Hopbottom, Pennsylvania.

He was married to Sarah E. Watrous (daughter of Bradford O. Watrous and Polly Oakley) on 11 Oct 1877 in Brooklyn, Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. Sarah E. Watrous was born on 22 Aug 1854 in Brooklyn, Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. She died on 22 Jan 1914 in Hopbottom, Susquehannah, Pennsylvania.

Mary Jean Williams contributed this photo in April 2001.  This is picture from "Two Centuries of Memories  Lathrop and Hop Bottom" by Hop Bottom Woman's Club assisted by Garford F. Williams and others 1981


David Stirling, resident landscape painter in Rocky Mountain National Park, was born in 1888 in Corydon, Iowa. He studied at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts & Cumming Art School. For most of his life he had a studio in Estes Park, Colorado where he would live in the summer and paint many of the scenes in the majestic Rocky Mountain National Park, where he exhibited his works from 1922-56. He also exhibited at Youngs Gallery in Chicago.

He was awarded an honorary D. F. A. at Kansas Wesleyan University in 1954; Hon. D. Aesthetics from Sterling College, Sterling, Kansas, 1957.

CJR Stirling Ancestral Tree (PDF)This wonderfully illustrated pedigree chart of Charles James Robert Stirling was submitted by Elspeth Flood. Thank you Elspeth for the great series of biographies you have prepared for us. Please accept our apologies for the delays in getting them posted. A crashed computer conspired against us.

CJRAncTree. This file is best viewed at 200 - 400%

Dr William Stirling 1682-1`757William Stirling (brother of Provost John) was born 6 July 1682 in Glasgow, and died 14 May 1757. He married (1) Janet Smith 1 January 1714/15. She was born 1695, and died 16 December 1719. He married (2) Elizabeth Murdoch 27 April 1721.

Notes for Dr. William Stirling from The Stirlings of Cadder by Thomas Willing Stirling, published 1933:

Dr. William Stirling, Physician and Surgeon in Glasgow, appears to have served with the Glasgow battalion, which was raised voluntarily by that City on receipt of the news of the Earl of Mar's Rising in 1715, and which formed part of the small force collected together by the Duke of Argyll to hold Stirling, by means of which he baffled the plans of the Earl of Mar and prevented the main part of the rebel army from crossing the Forth. The following extracts from the diary of the worthy doctor refer to this time, 12th Sept. 1715. "Yesterday and this day, from the apprehension of a Civil War now beginning in the North, . . . Pleaded with God that since he allowed us to call on him in time of trouble, therefore importunate for Grace to be valiant for Him and the truth."
17th Sept. 1715. "Being the day I had to go to Stirling with above 600 Volunteers, with a prospect of going directly to a battle - I endeavoured this night to fortifie myself by Meditation on - 'He that forsaketh not Father and Mother, etc. etc.' My wife being almost distracted with grief, was a great trouble to me - Lord I have yielded up myself to thy service, & now when thou art calling on me to resist unto blood, I desire to call in my poor mite to thy service. . . ."

Dr. William Stirling was a member of a co-partnery which was probably the first firm to introduce the manufacture of linen goods to Glasgow, in which connection he is mentioned by M'Ure.

Submitted by Elspeth Flood

Vice-Admiral Charles StirlingVice-Admiral Charles Stirling was born 28 April 1760 in London, England, baptised 15 May 1760, St. Alban's London, and died 7 November 1833 in Woburn Farm, Chertsey, Surrey. He married Charlotte Grote 11 August 1789 in Greenwich, London, daughter of Andreas Grote and Mary Culverden. She was born 1763, and died 25 March 1825 in Woburn Farm, Chertsey Surrey.

Notes for Vice-Admiral Charles Stirling from The Stirlings of Cadder by Thomas Willing Stirling, published 1933

In 1801 he was appointed Commissioner at Jamaica Yard. Afterwards, he was Commander-in-Chief at the Cape. As Rear Admiral he took part in Sir Robert Calder's action of 22 July 1805, in which he flew his flag in the "Glory," of 98 guns. In February of 1807 he commanded the Squadron in the combined Naval and Military operations at the reduction of the Fortress of Monte Video.

He was given the Freedom of the City of London, and a sword on the hilt of which is inscribed the following: [". gallant and meritorious conduct at the capture of the Fortress of Monte Video . . ."]

He was promoted to Vice Admiral, and in Oct. 1811 was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Squadron at Jamaica. On the outbreak of war with America he was placed under the orders of Admiral Sir Borlase Warren (Sept. 1812); and in June 1813 he was superseded by Rear Admiral Brown.

On arrival in England he learnt that he had been recalled in consequence of reports which had reached their Lordships, and on the 7th May 1814 he was Court Martialled on a charge preferred by Commissioiner Wolley, at Jamaica. This is contained in a letter, in which the Commissioner says - That His Majesty's Naval Service had been brought into disrepute in consequence of it being spoken of publicly that ships of war were hired out to convoy vessels going to the Spanish Main, and he quotes a specific case when Messrs. Bogle & Co., Vice Admiral Stirling's agents, negotiated with Mr. Pallachi, of the house of Moravia & Co., for the hire of His Majesty's Sloop "Sappho," and received the sum of two thousand dollars for the service.

But though a charge against the Admiral might be deduced in general terms from this letter, the charge on which he was tried was never stated in precise terms.

The only witness called for the prosecution was Captain O'Grady of the "Sappho," who, if there were any corrupt practice, was an undoubted accessory, and who could not be considered an unbiased witness, being obviously concerned to clear his own skirts.

The verdict of the Court was "That the charge had been in part proved against the said Vice Admiral Charles Stirling; and did adjudge him to remain on the half pay list of Vice Admirals of the Royal Navy; and not to be included in any further promotion." [T.W. Stirling devotes a further page to comment on the legal niceties of the case.]


James Francis Gordon Stirling, born 16 July 1889 in London, England; died September 1916 in France.

James Francis Gordon Stirling 1889-1916

Gordon Stirling with "Wipers" in the trenches, August 1916, one month before his death.

Gordon's will leaving his dog "Tim" to Nina.

The will reads:

Gordon Stirling. No. 2613, Lord Strachcona's Horse (R.C.), Canadian Contingent. Written at Devizes, at the Bear Hotel, Oct. 23rd 1914. Hope to be with you again at Salmon Arm B.C. before this date comes round again. "Tim", my fox terrier dog, is to become the property of Nina Stirling if anything fatal happens to me. Signed Gordon Stirling Oct. 23rd 1914. Louie Strathy (witness) P.S. Also the silver cigarette case in one of the trunks containing my clothes, etc.

Notes for James Francis Gordon Stirling: clipping from Salmon Arm newspaper in Nina Stirling's album:

Lt. Gordon Stirling Killed in Action

We regret to have to report the death from wounds of Lieutenant Gordon Stirling, son of Mr. and Mrs. C. J. R. Stirling of this city which took place on Friday last, September 22nd.

The late Lieut. Gordon Stirling had been in the B.C. Horse at Kelowna for three years before the outbreak of war. When war was declared he at once enlisted in the Strathcona Horse and left for England with his regiment as Orderly to Colonel McDonald. After the Lord Mayor's Show in London, in which pageant he was one of those chosen to represent the Canadian Troops, he was offered a temporary commission in the Horse Guards familiarly known as "the Blues" and after a period spent in training in this capacity went to the front as Second Lieutenant in that regiment.

He was shortly afterwards employed as Remount Officer for his regiment and obtained several drafts of horses in England which he took charge of and duly delivered to his regiment at the front. Being subsequently invalided with Trench Fever he spent sometime in a hospital after which he was removed to London for convalescence. In order to get back to the firing line as quickly as possible, and as cavalry was not wanted at the time. he took the opportunity offered him of a permanent commission in the Scots Guards and, after machine gun training, joined the machine gun section of Guards Brigade at the front subsequently being made second in command of the Brigade machine guns.

He went through much severe fighting with no injury excepting a slight wound in the hand caused by a bomb and in June last obtained the Military Cross for valour in going out under heavy fire to bring in two wounded men who were lying out in the open. The circumstances under which this perilous duty was performed were exceptional in the extreme. Word was brought in by a wounded artillery officer, who crawled back into the camp, that two wounded men were lying out under fire. Lieut. Stirling at once went to their assistance but finding the men too badly wounded to move. had to return for stretcher bearers. Two of these went back with the gallant Lieutenant but one lost his nerve and could not continue the journey so it devolved upon Lieutenant Stir1ing and the other gallant fellow (who secured the D.C.M. for his bravery) to do their best. They brought back one of the wounded men and then returned to the scene and succeeded in getting the other back to the line.

The silver cigarette case mentioned in Francis' will aboveSingularly enough neither Lieutenant Stirling nor the stretcher bearer who assisted him received any wounds whilst undertaking this perilous duty but unfortunately one of the injured men was hit a second time whilst being carried into safety. It took about an hour to perform this arduous task during which Lieutenant Stirling had his steel helmet hit several times whilst his tunic was fairly riddled.

A cablegram containing the sad news of the death of this brave young officer was received by his parents last week-end. No word had been previously received as to his being wounded at all and it is therefore surmised that the wounds which were the cause of his death must have been inflicted at one of the daring battles which took place in the course of last week when the Guards and others succeeded in capturing. three lines of German trenches.

Submitted by Elspeth Flood

Commander Thomas Willing Stirling 1866-1930Commander Thomas Willing Stirling, OBE was born 10 October 1866 in Manchester, and died 1930 in Bankhead Orchard, Kelowna. He married Mabel Marie Connally 28 June 1888. She died in Bankhead Orchard, Kelowna.

Notes for Commander Thomas Willing Stirling:

Emigrated to BC in 1893 after resigning his commission in the Navy. Started Bankhead Orchard. With Mr. James Crozier and Mr Colin Simpson Smith, he was instrumental in inaugurating the first co-operative association for the marketing of farm produce in the the upper country of British Columbia. On the death of his elder brother, John Stirling, he succeeded to the entailed estate of Muiravonside. With the concurrence and consent of his eldest son, Robert, steps were taken to break the entail which were finally consummated in 1923.

In 1908 he purchased the superiority of Drumpellier from the Trustees of his father's estate. This was not included in the entailed estate and had never passed into the possession of John Stirling of Muiravonside.

It was this man who wrote "The Stirlings of Cadder" (posthumously published in 1933), which is the source of most of my historical information on the Stirlings.

Submitted by Elspeth Flood

Walter Francis Stirling on an Arab mare given to him by Emir FaisalWalter Francis Stirling was born 31 January 1880, and died 22 February 1958. He married Marygold Mackenzie-Edwards July 1920.

In the photo on the right we see W.F. Stirling on an Arab mare given him by the Emir Feisal

Notes for Colonel Walter Francis Stirling:

Education: Kelly College; Graduation: graduated Royal Military Academy in Sandhurst Military service: Lieutenant in Royal Dublin Fusiliers; Post: Governor of the Jaffa District in Palestine; Awarded: DSO, Order of the Nile, MC, Order of El Nah.

Served with Lawrence of Arabia. Wrote the book Safety Last (decribed in booksellers listing): "Foreword by Siegfried Sassoon and an epilogue by Lord Kinross. 1953, 17 photographs, one of Lawrence taken by the author."

Table of contents of Safety Last: I. England: 1880-1899, II. South Africa: 1899-1902, III. Malta and Egypt: 1902-1905, IV. The Sudan: 1905-1912, V. Canada and London: 1912-1913, VI. Egypt: 1913-1914, VII. The Suez Canal and Gallipoli: 1914-1915, VIII. The Palestine Campaign: 1915-1918, IX. Arab Revolt: 1918-1919, X. Cairo: 1919, XI. Sinai: 1920, XII. Palestine: 1920-1923, XIII. Albania: 1923-1931, XIV. London: 1931-1938, XV. Rumania: 1939, XVI. Censorship, London: 1939-1940, XVII. The Balkans: 1940-1941, XVIII. Jerusalem: 1941-1942, XIX. Spears Mission, Syria: 1944-1945

He spent his childhood at Hampton Court Palace where Queen Victoria had set aside a wing for widows of Naval officers who died in the course of duty. W.F.'s father went down with his ship in 1880, the year W.F. was born (he left on the fateful voyage on the day W.F. was born). Just before WWI he came to Canada for a brief stint of rough living. His cousin (presumably Grote Stirling) found him an orchard property which he bought near Kelowna. He concluded that he would never make money and sold it at the first opportunity and went back to England in time to go back into the Army for the War.

In 1949, which is after the end of the text he wrote in Safety Last, Stirling was shot and nearly killed in Damascus. This event is described in the epilogue by Lord Kinross, which ends: "A few days after the attempted assassination a friend of his was sitting in a small Arab café in the bazaars of Damascus. Two Arabs were sitting at a table next him. He overheard one say to the other: "Did they really think they could kill Colonel Stirling with only six shots?"

For more info on W.F. Stirling's fascinating life, find a copy of his book Safety Last through a used book store or website. There appear to be many copies readily available.

Submitted by Elspeth Flood

John Stirling, Provost of Glasgow b. 1677John Stirling was born 1677, and died 26 May 1736 in Glasgow, buried 28 May 1736, Glasgow. He married Isabella Hunter 1702, daughter of John Hunter, of Forrester Saltcoats. She was born 1680, and died 24 November 1733, buried 26 November 1733.

Notes for John Stirling from The Stirlings of Cadder by Thomas Willing Stirling, published 1933:

John Stirling, Merchant in Glasgow, was made Burgess and Guildbrother 24 Sept. 1703. In the register of the baptism of his son William, 28 July 1717, he is described as "John Stirling, present Bailie." He was Provost of Glasgow in 1728 and was known for his kindliness and sincerity. The following excerpt from an extract from the Glasgow Herald of Feb. 2, 1880, may be quoted here: -
" 'Honest and kind Provost John' being unluckily bailie during the Shawfield Riots in 1725, was one of those on whom the blind wrath of the Government fell. He and other innocent magistrates were dragged under a guard of Dragoons to the Tollbooth of Edinburgh, and being there released on bail, were met on their way home by 200 citizens on horseback, and escorted into the towm amid ringing of bells and general rejoicing. Provost John and his brother Shirva" (i.e. Walter Stirling, father of Sir Walter Stirling of Faskine), "were of those who nursed infant foreign trade of Glasgow. They were named by M'Ure as in 'the great company that arose undertaking the trade to Virginia, Carribby Islands, Barbados, New England, St. Christophers, Monserat, and other Colonies in America,' an imposing list of markets, out of proportion to the 'great Company's' small ventures."

Submitted by Elspeth Flood

Sir James Stirling, forst Govenour of Western AustraliaAdmiral Sir James Stirling was born 28 January 1791 in Drumpellier, Lanarkshire, Scotland, died 23 April 1865 in Stoke, Near Guildford, Surrey, and buried 23 April 1865, Guildford, Surrey. He married Ellen Mangles 3 September 1823 in Stoke, Near Guildford, Surrey. She was born 4 September 1807 in Stoke, Near Guildford, Surrey, and died 8 June 1874 in Portland Place, London.[See lineage]

Founder of city of Perth and first Governor of Western Australia

Notes for Admiral Sir James Stirling from The Stirlings of Cadder by Thomas Willing Stirling, published 1933

He was the fifth son of eight of the fifteen children of Andrew Stirling, Esq. of Drumpellier near Coatbridge, North Lanarkshire, Scotland. His mother, Anne was his father's second cousin, being the daughter of Admiral Sir Walter Stirling and the sister of Sir Walter Stirling, 1st Baronet of Faskine and Admiral Sir Charles Stirling.

The Stirling family was well-known and celebrated in the naval annals of the 18th century. With such a family background, it was natural for James to enter the Royal Navy. He entered the Royal Navy 12 August 1803 as first class volunteer in the "Camel" storeship, Captain John Ayscough, fitting for the West Indies. He served as midshipman on the "Hercules," 74 [guns], "Prince George," 98, then in the "Glory," 98, in which ship he fought in Sir Robert Calder's action (22nd July 1805) under the flag of Vice Admiral Charles Stirling [See Bio on Vice Admiral Charles Stirling], whom he subsequently followed into the "Sampson" and "Diadem," 64s. He was present at the taking of Monte Video in 1807. He obtained his first commission 12 August 1809, and was appointed successively to the "Hibernia" 120, and "Armide" 38. In November 1811 he became flag lieutenant to Admiral Stirling in the "Arthusa" 38 on the Jamaica Station. 27th February 1812 he was placed in acting command of the "Moselle" 18, and on 19 June was confirmed as a commander of the "Brazen" sloop 28. At the beginning of the war with America he cruised for four months off the Mississippi, where he succeeded in destroying a considerable amount of enemy property. On one occasion the "Brazen" was dismasted in a hurricane, but he maintained his station by cutting and fitting masts and spars from the neighbouring forests of Pensacola.

In 1813 he was sent to Hudson's Bay for the purpose of offering protection to the settlements and shipping in that quarter, and in the winter of the same year he was ordered on special service to the coast of Holland with H.S.H. the reigning Duke of Brunswick. After cruising on the coast of Ireland he again sailed for the Gulf of Mexico. On the conclusion of hostilities he was nominated Acting Captain of the "Cydnus" 38, owing to the death of her captain; but returning soon to the "Brazen," and being re-appointed to her on the peace settlement, he continued to serve in that vessel lin the West Indies until paid off in August 1818.

"I cannot," writes the Commander-in-Chief in a letter addressed to the Admiralty on the eve of the departure of the "Brazen," "permit Captain Stirling to quit this station without expressing to their Lordships my entire satisfaction with his conduct while under my command. The zeal and alacrity he always displayed in the execution of whatever service he was employed upon are above praise, but it is to his acquaintance with foreign languages, his thorough knowledge of the station, particularly the Spanish Main, and his gentlemanlike and conciliatory manners, that I am so much indebted for assisting me in the preservation of a friendly intercourse with the foreign colonies in this command. I conceive it will be as gratifying to their Lordships to hear as it is for me to make so honourable a report of this intelligent and excellent officer whom I detach from my command with considerable regret, but I feel at the same time a very sincere pleasure in thus recommending him to their Lordships' notice.

Captain Stirling's promotion to Post rank took place 7th December in the same year (1818). His next appointment was Jan. 1826 to the "Success" 28; and in this ship he was sent to forma settlement at Raffle's Bay, in Torres Strait - a service which he accomplished in so able a manned as to cause his being highly complimented by the Naval Commander-in-Chief and the Gocernor of New South :Wales. In October 1828, nine months after he had left the "Success," he was selected to take command of an expedition intended to form a colony in Western Australia, where he remained until induced, in 1839 to tender his resignation, [to return to the Navy], having during that period, surrounded as he was with the difficulties inseperable from the establishment of a new settlement, evinced a degree of zeal and ability that procured him, 3rd April 1833, the honour of Knighthood, and ultlimately the acknowledgement of Her Majesty.
To quote from an animated address presented to him by the colonists on leaving:

"They could testify with confidence and gratitude that the general tenor of His Excellency's administration had been highly and deservedly popular; that they had invariably found in him a friend of warm and ready sympathy with individual distress, an entire and liberal promotion of every good and useful institution, an able and zealous patron of every enterprise suggested for the general welfare, and in all the domestic and social relations of private life, an example worthy of his high station."

On the prospect of war with France, Sir James Stirling was appointed, 10th October 1840, to the "Indus" 78. He continued in that ship, in the Mediterranean, until paid off in June 1844. Before the "Indus" returned to England he received from Sir Edward Owen, the Commander-in-Chief, a letter expressive of the sense he entertained of the efficiency of that ship in all that constitutes a perfect man-of-war, and of the admiration which the order and discipline on board had excited in all the foreign ports he had visited. In April 1847 he was appointed to the command of the "Howe," 120 on the Mediterranean station.

(NOTE - The above account of Sir James Stirling has been copied, almost verbatim, from a manuscript in the possession of Mrs. Agnes Anstruther. Mrs. Anstruther is a granddaughter of Sir James, being the daughter of Mrs. Guthrie, Sir James's third daughter.) - T.W.S.

submitted by Elspeth Flood

Anna Stirling Pope, a historian on the Stirling family, lives in Australia.  She kindly provided this information.

"That in the opinion of this House, women who fulfill the conditions and possess the qualifications on which the parliamentary franchise for the Legislative Council is granted to men, shall, like them, be admitted to the franchise for both Houses of Parliament."
Stirling’s motion to the South Australian House of Assembly, 22 July 1885.

Edward Charles Stirling was a ‘Renaissance man’, who possessed a profound interest in and knowledge of many topics. Trained in medicine and the arts, he was also keenly interested in anthropology, palaeontology, exploration, zoology, horticulture, public health, education, the advancement and accessibility of culture and the arts, the rights of women, and social justice. His incredible energy facilitated remarkable achievements in every one of these fields, and during his 71 years, he made a multiplicity of lasting contributions to society.

He was born at Strathalbyn in 1848, the eldest son of pioneer pastoralist Edward Stirling. He studied first at St Peter’s College in Adelaide, and subsequently gained four degrees from Trinity College, Cambridge: BA with Honours in Natural Science, (1869); MA (1873); BMed (1874); and MD (1880). While living in England he was also admitted as a Member then Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons (1872, 1874) and worked as lecturer and surgeon at St George’s Hospital and Belgrave Hospital in London.

In 1875, six years after his marriage to South Australian Jane Gilbert, he returned to his homeland where his skills as a highly trained physician were invaluable. He became a consulting surgeon at the Adelaide Hospital, and was also instrumental in the 1883 founding of a Medical School at the seven-year-old University of Adelaide. He was the first lecturer and first professor of Physiology (1884-1900, 1900-19), sat on the University Council (1881-1919), and served as Dean of Medicine (1908-19).

Mrs EC Stirling RhododedronIn 1882, he established the house and garden of St Vigeans at Stirling in the Adelaide (the town having been named after his father and the property after the Scottish school his father attended). The fine two-storey house and part of the remarkable ‘botanic’ garden he established there are included in the State Heritage Register. The many rare trees and shrubs included South Australia’s first rhododendrons, one of which was named Mrs EC Stirling, and several new varieties were developed by him and his head gardener Whibley.

Stirling also made a significant contribution to the early development of the South Australian Museum, where he was Director (1884-1913) and honorary Curator of Ethnology (1914-19). He took part in several significant scientific expeditions including: pioneering explorations in Iceland (1870); with Lord Kintore from Darwin to Adelaide (1890-91, where he named and described the marsupial mole Notoryctes Typhlops); directing the 1892 expedition to Lake Callabonna (collecting the bones of Diprotodon Australis); and on the 1894 Horn Expedition to the McDonnell Ranges and Central Australia. During the Australian expeditions, and by establishing a network of contacts throughout the country, he gathered the world’s largest collection of aboriginal artefacts of the time.

A great supporter of the rights of women, he was first in Australasia to introduce a bill for women’s suffrage. He became the North Adelaide Member of the House of Assembly in 1884, proposing a motion for women’s suffrage in 1885, and a bill in 1886. Although not passed, the bill presumably prepared the way for the similar bill passed in 1894. He was not only committed to the political rights of women, but also believed in their right to a proper education. He lectured at the Advanced School for Girls and campaigned for women to be admitted to Adelaide University’s School of Medicine.

His death in 1919 was a great loss to his family, as well as to the countless organisations which he served so tirelessly (Hospital, University, Museum, Public Library, Art Gallery, Zoo, RSPCA, etc.). He received many honours and awards, particularly valuing that of Fellow of the Royal Society (1893), others being CMG (Companion of the Order of St Michael & St George - 1893), the Queen Regent of Holland’s Gold Medal for ‘services to art and science’ (1892), an honorary Doctorate in Science from Trinity College, Cambridge (1910), and Knight Bachelor (1917).

Written by Anna Stirling Pope, Goodwood, South Australia
October 2000


  • Hale, HM 1956, The First Hundred Years of the South Australian Museum 1856-1956, Records of the SA Museum, Vol XII, 18 June 1956, Adelaide.
  • Last, Peter 1949, ‘The Founder of the Adelaide Medical School’, The AMSS Review, November 1949, pp 7-21.
  • Waite, Edgar R 1929, The Reptiles and Amphibians of SA, Government Printer, Adelaide, pp 102, 125-128


Robert Leighton was born in 1611, related to a family of some distinction resident near Montrose.  While his grandfather was a Roman Catholic, his father, Dr. Alexander Leighton served as doctor and Presbyterian minister in London and Utrecht.  He was a strong opponent of Episcopacy.

The life of this man is a story in its own, he was 30 years old at the time of his ordination. 

At the age of 16 Robert Leighton entered the University of Edinburgh in the winter of 1627 and completed his degree of Master of Arts in July 1631.  He then spent some years abroad, principally at Douai, in France.

Leighton returned to Scotland in 1638 and was ordained to the Parish of Newbattle, about six miles from Edinburgh, in 1641.  Family life prior to his ordination, had not been tranquil, he had seen his father, a Medical Doctor,  suffer terrible hardship resulting from his father's authorship of the Book "Zion's plea against Prelacy".

In this book his father had, at a time when Episcopacy and Presbytery fought for supremacy,  severely criticised the Bishops who then ruled the Church of Scotland. He had had his ears cut off, his nose split, thrown in Jail and was only released when his son was ordained at Newbattle. An earlier day Salman Rushtie perhaps, but not so lucky.

In 1653, he was appointed Principal of Edinburgh University where he continued until Episcopacy was restored by King Charles II.  Leighton became Bishop of Dunblane in 1661.  He was consecrated in Westminster and first met the SYnod of Dunblane on 15th September 1662.

At the personal request of Charles II in 1670, Bishop Leighton was induced to become Archbishop of Glasgow.  Acceptance of this dignity had been prompted by hope that it would provide him with the opportunity to find common ground on which to reconcile the Episcopalians with Presbyterians.  He met opposition in the South West, although Glasgow petitioned Charles II for him to stay.

Leighton retired to spend the rest of his life with his step-sister Sophia Lightmaker, in Sussex.  While on a visit to London he died on the 25th of June 1684 and was buried at Horsted Heynes, Sussex.

Robert Leighton is recorded as of singular learning, piety, benevolence and great gentleness.  He bequeathed his books approximating 1400 volumes to the Cathedral of Dunblane, together with 100 pounds towards the cost of erecting a building to accommodate them.

With additional finance and endowment from his relatives, the provisions of the bequest were completed in 1688 with the Erection of the Leighton Library.

Leighton's legacy of education, a love of books and knowledge were passed on to many of his parishioners, including the Stirling Family.  For over 500 years there has been a focus on Education and learning in most segments of the Stirling Families.  Robert Leighton undoubtedly played a large role in it.

The Leighton Library
The Leighton Library is the oldest privately owned library in Scotland.  It was founded by Robert Leighton (1611-84), the then  Bishop of Dunblane.

This two story building measures 44 feet by 20 feet.  It took four years to complete.  The lower story has a barrel vaulted roof and was orginally divided into two or three rooms with doors for living quarters for the librarian. 

The first known librarian was Robert Douglas, former minister at Bothwell and son of the last Bishop of Dunblane.

Today the first floor consists of a single room lined presses of shelving for the storage of books.  The original six presses hold Robert Leighton's own books.

The management of the Leighton Library has been under the control of a succession of Trustees since 1691.  You can access the catalog for the library at Stirling University's Library -

The library building was completed in 1688 and housed the Bishop's own private book collection.  The cost of the building was kept to a minimum by using fallen stone from the nearby Bishops's Palace.  The rare collection of books has since grown from the original 1,400 books bequeathed to some 4,500 volumes on a variety of subjects and printed in 80 different  languages.  Visitors to this impressive literary collection are given the rare and unique opportunity to handle some of Scotland's rarest books, the oldest being a book of Psalms dating back to 1504.  The collection includes Samuel Johnson's Dictionaries, and many first editions, such as Sir Walter Scott's 'Lady of the Lake'.

Leighton Library - about 1940
Leighton Library ~ (1980's)

The library is open to the general public from May to the beginning of October and to groups at other times by arrangement.  Ckeck the Dunblane Cathedral website for open times and dates.


Albert Mack SterlingAlbert M. Sterling (pictured) wrote "The Sterling Genealogy", a two volume genealogical masterpiece on the Stirling family in 1909. It was published by The Grafton Press in two volumes, and comprises over twelve hundred pages of priceless information on the Sterling family. I've received more questions about this book than any other at Clan Stirling Online. This is just one sample -

"Is the Sterling book by Albert Mack Sterling still available? I am a Sterling descendant and have an old family history sheet that was taken from this book. I would love to have the book for reference. Please let me know."

(Albert M. Sterling 1874-1965)
Albert collected the information by writing letters to Sterlings all over the world. He wrote over nine thousand letters (by hand!), collected over fifty coats of arms of the Stirling and Sterling families. Like anyone who publishes a work such as this there are a number of entries in Albert's work that time has proven to be incorrect, but the volume of information in these volumes is priceless. The two hundred original copies of this book have long been a sought after item for Stirling researchers. The book is now available from a number of republishers, and has enjoyed new life in the 1990's. The information Albert collected almost 100 years ago is extremely valuable, and appreciated.

But the question remains. Where are the nine thousand letters? Where are his notes? Where are the photos that DIDN'T get used in the books? Who wrote to him? Remember Albert tried to contact someone from ALL the Sterling and Stirling branches he was aware of. Some of the facts presented in the book were first hand accounts from people that were still alive at the time the book was printed. These lletters and papers will likely have a great deal more information, perhaps other news and information dear to the many Stirling and Sterling lines Albert researched.

So last year a quiet search for Albert's papers began. First we found more information on Albert M. Sterling himself - He was born on 3 Nov 1874, the son of Eugene Spencer Sterling and Ellen Elizabeth Mack. Eugene's parents were Alphonse Sterling and Mary Horton. Ellen Elizabeth Mack was the daughter of Alfred Mack and Elizabeth Jewett. Albert married Lillian Woodburn Burbank on 22 Dec 1898, and lived most of his life in Albany, New York, working for the newspaper there. He died around 1965. He had no known children. He is a descendant of the William Sterling of Lyme Connecticut branch of the Stirling family.

We've looked at the library of Congress and poked around quite a few historical societies in the North East United States, but so far we've not made much progress. So far very little is known about the state of these papers. If you have a moment, please take a look around, and report back to Clan Stirling what you find, and what you DO NOT find. Knowing that the papers are NOT in a certain library or historical society is just as valuable as that they are, as we will then know where not to look again. So please if you ask and don't find anything, LET US KNOW.


  1. Albany New York Libraries, Historical Societies.
  2. State of New York Library System.
  3. Universities
  4. Historical Societies.
  5. Family Members - Maybe your family knows!

The more eyes and ears we have looking for Albert's papers, the better chance we all have of finding them. If we find them, I'm sure there will be a great deal of interesting and perhaps valuable information on them. Because Albert had no children, the papers and other items may be difficult to find. If you have information on Albert M. Sterling, or his papers, please pass the information along to A special webpage will be setup to keep you appraised of new developments.
Perhaps some of you wonder what possessed a man almost 100 years ago to create such a large work on the Sterling family. We are fortunate because Albert took some space in his book to tell us -

A genealogy is necessarily, in great part, a repetition of the dry records of births, marriages, and deaths, but if the student of his ancestry will consider what a vast amount of happiness, joy, pathos, and sorrow have been associated with every one of these many dates and how vital each event was that these dates chronicle, to one or more of the blood, and that around such commonplace episodes cluster our dearest affections, he will find that these simple records contain all the elements that appeal to our highest natures, and an earnest consideration of the simple, humble lives of our parents and their forbears cannot but serve to strengthen our own purposes in the paths of modesty, gentleness, and duty."

(The Sterling Genealogy, Vol 1, pg. 10)

I hope all of us will help find the rest of the happiness contained in Albert's life work.
Michael L. Jex

The following information about Dr. James Stirling was provided by Stirling family expert David M. Stirling, who lives in Denny, Scotland.

"Dr James Stirling was the son of Peter Stirling and Margaret Paterson. He was born at Newbiggings, Lecropt, Perthshire on 23 February, 1799.  He was the youngest son of Peter & Margaret.  The male siblings were Peter, born 30 Mar 1794, Archibald, born 27 Oct 1795.  The brothers were not in Lecropt Parish in 1819, when a census was taken. About 1815, he astounded the citizens of the City of Dunblane in Perthshire, by riding down the High Street on a "widden horse" (a bicycle) invented by himself and complete with pedals and chain. He was a grand-nephew of Michael Stirling, inventor of the threshing machine who was himself grandfather of Rev. Robert Stirling, inventor of the Stirling Hot Air Engine. Dr James emigrated to Canada and died at Van Kleck Hill, Ontario, in 1857. James had at least two daughters, Ann Mary and Isabella Stirling."

"Dr James was my first cousin, five times removed and he was a second cousin, once removed of Rev. Robert Stirling, inventor of the Stirling Air Engine."


As written by Mamie Rachel Sterling-Sinner-Earl
In the year of our Lord 1964

Note:  This has been typed by Mary Rachel Sinner-Hendrickson.  Mamie, my Grandmother Sinner, was 76 years of age when she penned this compilation, and it was 13 years before her death.  Her memories are taken from photocopies in my possession.  She wrote this to her grandson and his first wife, Richard David Sinner, Jr., and Diana Rigg-Sinner.  Richard David Sinner, Jr. is my brother, and his nickname is Spike.  Some words have been corrected, only to allow the reader to more easily read her memories.  The feelings she expresses, are still conveyed, as in the original text.

Grandma Sinner’s memories:
“This 9th day of March, I will begin this book, as I have promised you, Diana and Spike, as this day is a bright, sunshiny day.  It rained yesterday, so the sky is so clear today in this big city where life is busy, and it seems as there are no end of peoples cars.  I guess in this city you could find good and bad, health, sickness, sorrow and worse.  Just about any thing you were looking for, you could find.  Only one thing you could not find is pure peace, which that can only come from God alone.

You see, Diana, I was born in the year of 1888, the 22nd of June, on a bright summer day.  I love the long summer days.  There are so many things you can do in summer time.  There are gardens you can plant, and flowers that makes it more beautiful.  And, how the children love to be out doors, playing in summer.  So many more things one can do in summer time.

I remember as I was born in Shelton, Nebraska, a wonderful state.  They raise the most beautiful corn, great fields.  There were lots of cattle raised there, sheep and other stock.  And plenty of snow in winter time.  Oh, isn’t it wonderful when you look upon the things God has made.  Such a wonderful, beautiful world, and still not to be compared with the great high heavens above us, where some day, Diana, we can all meet again, to live forever with the great father and son, Jesus, that died to save our souls. 

I remember in the year of 1892, the Indian territory was opened up for settlers for homestead.  It’s now the state of Oklahoma, the state line of Kansas and Oklahoma.  There were people gathered, as you see, they were to run into the land, and they stake a flag on the farm, or ground, and it would be theirs.  Of course, the first one put the flag on the ground of the farm, it was their land.  They called it the “race into the Indian territory”.  So, my father, Spikes great grandfather, and my mother’s brother, my Uncle Bill, made the race, so they drove as far as Enid, the town I was raised in, and took some land.  They have made a movie show of the race.  I hope some day you might see it.  The race from the Kansas line into Oklahoma, they came in wagons, buggy carts, horseback, with mules.  Well, maybe some of them walked it.  Sure was a great time; hundreds of people was in the race, and that was 1892.  And now it is filled with city and towns, but I left Oklahoma when I was about 22 years old.  We moved to Bakersfield, California.  I was married, had 3 children when I came to California, and I have no desire to return to Oklahoma.  I love California, I think it is a wonderful state.  So, you see, I have lived in California many years. 

So, in 1892, we left Nebraska for our new home.  My Daddy and uncle had built us a home, so we were going to our Daddy and new home.  My Daddy was an Attorney of Law, and he opened up the first land and law office in the town, our home town, Enid, Oklahoma.  Them days they had a big platform built by the rail road, and a  caplon (editor’s note:  this is most likely a cupola) past where there was a big hook on the posts.  And, they hung the mail sack on it.  And, the passing train would slow down, they would grab the mail sack.  My Uncle Billie Gilpin was the first mail man in Enid.  He caught the mail sack as they threw it off at the platform, and took it on down at the post office.  So, my Daddy and uncle play a part of the first business in the town. 

We had no electric.  We burned coal oil lamps then.  So, we had a iron stove, we called
it the heaten’ stove, had to burn coal in it.

Well, I will go back at time we left home, our home in Nebraska.  We went to one of mother’s friends house, and stayed until after Xmas.  And well, I remember down the street, 3 or 4 blocks away, was a big church, and there we went Xmas night to the church.  And, I guess the reason I have never forgot it, the big Xmas tree, it was beautiful and warm in the church.  But, oh my, out doors the ground was covered with snow.  So we all went to the Xmas tree; Mother, my Grandma, and us six children, and Mother’s friends, and a big boy about 17 years old.  So, it wasn’t so bad going to the church.  But, oh my, seeing that beautiful Xmas tree, then leaving the church, and the snow was falling thick and fast, the ground was covered with snow, deep about a foot deep, 12 inc.  Excuse the old fishers talk.  This boy had taken hold of my sister and my hand, and we ran all the way home.  We had mittens on our hands, but we were so cold, felt like we were all frozen.  But, we lived through it, ha ha.  What a run. 

Well, the day came that we were to take the train for a long ride to our new home.  Mother and our Grandma, my mother’s mother, and us six children, we made lunches to take with us.  We had a big sack of cookies that mother and her friend had baked for us on our journey.  So at last we were on the train 3 days and 3 nights.  The first night, or day, we had to change cars.  We changed in Joplin, Missouri, and when we were changing cars, sister May dropped the big sack of cookies, and it was so embarrassing to Mother, but we saved most of the cookies. 

And, so, the porter on the train was a colored man, and when we changed cars, he carried me over to the other car that we was to get on. And oh my, he carried my little brother over, too.  And we had never seen a black man before.  We were afraid of him, and he kissed us both goodbye.  And, during that time, we both learned to love him, even if he was a black man.

So, when we arrived at the end of our journey, we were all so tired, and glad to get off of the train.  Then, we met our Daddy and my uncle at the depot, and we rode in the stage home, and my Daddy had bought a little red wagon, and he had it full of popcorn candy and peanuts.  Oh, how happy we all were to be at our new home. 

I will say goodnight, for now.  May God bless you and keep you under the shelter of his wings.  Until then.  Will write some more. 

We had to ride in the stage 3 miles after we got off of the train.  Then, after we had looked our  new home over, we were surprised to see how warm it was.  The sun was shining so bright.  We ran down the hill, and there was lots of white sand on our place.  So, we had a grand time.  We pulled off our shoes and stockings, and having a great time being barefooted, and that was a treat.  But, when mother came out and seen us, it was not so nice.  She made us all put our shoes on, and that was the end of that fun.  But we got used to it.  Oh days of childhood, how wonderful they are. 

Morning time again, a new day has begun.  I wonder if we will put good things into this day, or will we forget this is the day the Lord made, and his eyes see all we do.

I remember when Spike was about 2 years old.  We were on the Sacramento River.  One day, an old shepherd dog came to our camp.  He was crippled in one foot, and he seemed to have a sore mouth.  So Butch and Spike, and all gave him the name of Shep.  And, how we all loved that dog.  He was lovable.  So, one day, Spike, sitting on the ground, holding Shep’s head in his lap.  I just thought he was loving Shep, then I seen  he was looking in his mouth.  So, I took time to see what he was doing, and he pulled a fish hook out of the side of Shep’s mouth.  And, the dog just was laying there so still while our baby pulled that hook out.  Then he held it up and said “See Grandma”.  Sure tell that old dog sure loved him for that, and again as little as he was, he looked at Shep’s sore foot, and it was sore from traveling so much.  So Spike doctored this foot, and it got well.  And, my, how we all loved that old dog.  Our baby boy, Spike, was always doing something good.  God bless him.  We all love him so much. 

Well, another morning.  It is such a beautiful day after such fires we‘ve been having in the mountains.  And, a big rain came then.  Always after trouble, it is so peaceful.  So we are really enjoying this day.

March 30 ’64:  A new day.  Will try and write a few more lines.  I remember when I was about 5 years old.  We had went to visit our Grandma in Kansas on a farm.  One of my uncles was about 16, and one was about 10 years old, and oh, I thought they were great big boys, they had a big swing, a rope tied to a great, high tree.  And, I remember how Uncle Jim would say “Now hold on tight”, and he would make the swing go so high, we would go way up over in a circle.  And oh my, when Mother and Grandmother seen, they slowed him down.  But we children was having the time of our life. 

I remember we all loved to go down in the cellar, or cave as we called it.  Them days, you know it was down under the ground.  They keep their butter milk cream, and whatever fruit they had canned to keep it from freezing, or so it wouldn’t spoil in the hot weather, because they had no ice boxes them days.

I remember my mother telling us children when she was a little girl, she was going down to her Uncle John’s home.  You see, them days they used to call it a home on the prairie land of Kansas.  The people could go out and take a piece of land.  They allowed them a 160 acres that was called a homestead.  It was not very thickly settled yet.  He, Uncle John lived on a homestead a mile from where mother’s home was.  So, once they had sent mother over to Uncle Johns for some reason.  So as mother was about half mile from home, she seen a big dust storm, or that is what it looked like.  So she became frightened, and there was just one big tree between Grandma’s place and Uncle John’s.  So, mother hurried and climbed up the tree.  And when the storm got where mother was, it was a herd of wild buffalo in a stampede.  So, that tree saved mother’s life.  God must of had that tree there for mother.” 

The end of Grandma Sinner’s written, and shared memories.

From an article J O'Connor and E F Robertson at the Universtiy of St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland

James Stirling's father was Archibald Stirling and his mother, Archibald Stirling's second wife, was Anna Hamilton. James was their third son and he was born on the family estate at Garden, about 20 km west of the Scottish town of Stirling. The family were strong supporters of the Jacobite cause and this was to have a significant influence on James Stirling's life.

The Jacobite cause was that of the Stuart king, James II (of Britain -- James VII of Scotland: Jacobus in Latin), exiled after the Revolution of 1688, and his descendants. Scotland was united to England and Wales in 1707. The Stuarts were Scottish but Roman Catholics and therefore they had only limited support. They did, however, offer an alternative to the British crown with an exiled court in France which had strong support from many such as the Stirling family. When James Stirling was about 17 his father was arrested, imprisoned and accused of high treason because of his Jacobite sympathies. However he was acquitted of the charges.

Nothing is known of Stirling's childhood or indeed about his undergraduate years in Scotland. The first definite information that we know is that he travelled to Oxford in the autumn of 1710 in order to matriculate there. Indeed Stirling matriculated at Balliol College Oxford on 18 January 1711 as a Snell Exhibitioner.

The Snell Exhibitions to Balliol College were established by the will of an Ayrshire man John Snell (1629?-1679). They were originally intended for Scottish students within Scotland who had not graduated and who would subsequently return to Scotland as priests of the Church of England. Nominations were to be made by the College of Glasgow, one of the requirements of candidates being that they should have spent at least one year at Glasgow. Based on this, together with information from Ramsay (see [4]) who knew Stirling in later life and wrote that he was:-  bred at the University of Glasgow  it is usual to state that indeed Stirling studied at the University of Glasgow (as is done in [1]). However this is not absolutely certain. We know that Ramsay is not always completely reliable. Stirling's name does not appear in the list of students matriculating at Glasgow (not all student's names occur so this is not very significant). Tweddle [3] notes that a student with the name 'James Stirling' matriculated at the University of Edinburgh on 24 March 1710, did not graduate, and has a signature which is similar to that of the mathematician. Another fact, which is not insignificant, is that Stirling's father was a graduate of Edinburgh. It would be nice to solve this and many other puzzles associated with Stirling's life but they may always remain as puzzles.  Stirling was awarded a second scholarship in October 1711, namely the Bishop Warner Exhibition. He should have sworn an oath when matriculating but his Jacobite sympathies would not let him do this and he was excused. Queen Anne died in August 1714 and the German, George I, acceded to the British throne. In 1715 there was the first Jacobite Rebellion, which melted away after the drawn Battle of Sheriffmuir on 13 November 1715. However the concession of allowing Stirling not to swear the oath was withdrawn. He lost his scholarships when he continued to refuse to take the oath. Then he was accused of corresponding with Jacobites who had been involved in planning the rebellion. Life must have been difficult for him at this time and he even appeared at the assizes charged with 'cursing King George' but he was acquitted.

Certainly Stirling could now not graduate from Oxford but he remained there for some time. In the minutes of a meeting of the Royal Society of London on 4 April 1717, when Brook Taylor lectured on extracting roots of equations and on logarithms, it is recorded:-

Mr Stirling of Balliol College Oxford had leave to be present. In 1717 Stirling published his first work Lineae Tertii Ordinis Neutonianae which extends Newton's theory of plane curves of degree 3, adding four new types of curves to the 72 given by Newton. The work was published in Oxford and Newton himself received a copy of the work which is dedicated to the Venetian ambassador Nicholas Tron.  Lineae Tertii Ordinis Neutonianae contains other results that Stirling had obtained. There are results on the curve of quickest descent, results on the catenary (in particular relating this problems to that of placing spheres in an arch), and results on orthogonal trajectories. The problem of orthogonal trajectories had been raised by Leibniz and many mathematicians worked on the problem in addition to Stirling, including Johann Bernoulli, Nicolaus(I) Bernoulli, Nicolaus(II) Bernoulli, and Leonard Euler. It is known that Stirling solved the problem early in the year 1716.

In 1717 Stirling went to Venice. The Venetian ambassador Tron left London to return to Venice in June 1717 and it is almost certain that Stirling travelled with him. Stirling seems to have been promised a chair of mathematics in Venice but, for some reason that is not known, the appointment fell through. What Stirling did in Venice is also not known but he certainly continued his mathematical research.

Stirling certainly was in Venice in 1719 since he submitted a paper Methodus differentialis Newtoniana illustrata to the Royal Society of London from Venice at that time. The paper was received by the Royal Society and reported to their meeting on 18 June 1719.

Now Nicolaus(I) Bernoulli occupied the chair at the University of Padua from 1716 until 1722. Stirling must have met Nicolaus(I) Bernoulli and got to know him quite well since, in 1719, he wrote to Newton, again from Venice, offering to act as a go-between. In 1721 Stirling was in Padua and we know that he attended the University of Padua at that time.

In 1722 Stirling returned to Glasgow, perhaps around the time that his friend Nicolaus(I) Bernoulli left Padua. There is a story told by Tweedie in [5] that Stirling learned the secrets of the glass industry while in Italy and had to flee for fear of his life since the glass-makers may have tried to assassinate him to prevent their secrets becoming known. It is not clear what he did between that time and late 1724 but it is clear that, at least from 1722, he had the intention of becoming a teacher in London.

In August 1722 Maclaurin visited Newton in London and Newton showed him a letter from Stirling in which Stirling wrote that he intended to set himself up as a mathematics teacher in London. Certainly Stirling was friendly with Newton and the letter was almost certainly asking for Newton's help in this venture, help which Newton was giving in telling Maclaurin of Stirling's plans.

In late 1724 Stirling travelled to London where he was to remain for 10 years. These were ten years in which Stirling was very active mathematically, corresponding with many mathematicians and enjoying his friendship with Newton. Newton proposed Stirling for a fellowship of the Royal Society of London and, on 3 November 1726, Stirling was elected.

Stirling achieved his aim of becoming a teacher in London when he was appointed to William Watt's Academy in Little Tower Street, Covent Garden, London which was one of the most successful schools in London; and, although he had to borrow money to pay for the mathematical instruments he needed. The school's prospectus of 1727 lists a course on mechanical and experimental philosophy given by Stirling and others. The syllabus included mechanics, hydrostatics, optics, and astronomy.  While in London, Stirling published his most important work Methodus Differentialis in 1730. This book is a treatise on infinite series, summation, interpolation and quadrature. The asymptotic formula for n! for which Stirling is best known appears as Example 2 to Proposition 28 of the Methodus Differentialis.

There is another area of Stirling's work that we shall examine, namely his work on gravitation and the figure of the Earth. However, before doing so we will look at a correspondence that Stirling had with Euler since this relates to the work we have just discussed on series. Euler wrote to Stirling on 8 June 1736 from St Petersburg. We quote from his letter where he gives his opinion on Stirling's work 

"the more I have learned from your excellent articles, which I have seen here and there in your Transactions, concerning the nature of series, a study in which I have indeed expended much effort, the more I have wished to become acquainted with you in order that I could receive more from you yourself and also submit my own deliberations to your judgement. But before I wrote to you, I searched all over with great eagerness for your excellent book on the method of differences, a review of which I had seen a short time before in the Acta Lipsiensis, until I achieved my desire. Now that I have read through it diligently, I am truly astonished at the great abundance of excellent methods contained in such a small volume, by means of which you show how to sum slowly converging series with ease and how to interpolate progressions which are very difficult to deal with. But especially pleasing to me was proposition XIV of part 1 in which you give a method by which series, whose law of progression is not even established, may be summed with great ease using only the relation of the last terms, certainly this method extends very widely and is of the greatest use. In fact the proof of this proposition, which you seem to have deliberately withheld, caused me enormous difficulty, until at last I succeeded with very great pleasure in deriving it from the preceding results, which is the reason why I have not yet been able to examine in detail all the subsequent propositions"

 In 1735 Stirling returned to Scotland where he was appointed manager of the 'Scots mining company, Leadhills' in Lanarkshire at a salary of 120 per year. This was a job that Stirling did very well, he proved extremely successful as a practical administrator, the condition of the mining company improving vastly owing to his method of employing labour to work the mines. However the work was very demanding. It was two years before he got round to replying to Euler's letter from which we quoted above. In the reply, dated 16 April 1738, and written from Edinburgh he explains why he has not replied sooner.

"During these last two years I have been involved in a great many business matters which have required me to go frequently to Scotland, and then return to London. And it was on account of these affairs that first of all your letter came late into my hands and then that, even to this very day, there is scarcely time available for reading through your letter with the attention which it deserves. For after deliberations have been interrupted, not to say neglected, for a long time, patience is required before the mind can be brought to think about the same things once again".

In the same letter Stirling offered to put Euler's name forward for election to the Royal Society of London. He did not do that, however, probably again through pressure of work with the mining company and it was not until 1746 that he was proposed by several mathematicians not including Stirling.  It appears that Stirling never replied to this second letter from Euler. He wrote to Maclaurin on 26 October 1738 saying that Euler's second letter was:-

"... full of many ingenious things, but it is long and I am not quite master of all the particulars."

 In 1745 Stirling published a paper on the ventilation of mine shafts. He certainly did not give up mathematics when he took up the post in the mining company, and in there is a discussion of unpublished mathematical work in notebooks of Stirling that were probably written between 1730 and 1745.  The year 1745 was the date of the most major of the Jacobite rebellions and Maclaurin played an active role in the defence of Edinburgh against the Jacobites. Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, entered Edinburgh with an army of 2,400 men on 17 September 1745. In 1746 Maclaurin died, partly as a consequence of the battles of the previous year, and Stirling was considered for his chair at Edinburgh. However Stirling's strong support for the Jacobite cause meant that such an appointment was impossible, especially in the year after the rebellion.

Stirling was elected to membership of the Royal Academy of Berlin in 1746. In 1753 he resigned from the Royal Society of London as he was in debt to the Society and could no longer afford the annual subscriptions. It cost him 20 to resign.

One non-mathematical contribution by James ... 

... he surveyed the Clyde with a view to rendering it navigable by a series of locks, thus taking the first step towards making Glasgow the commercial capital of Scotland. The citizens were not ungrateful, and in 1752 presented him with a silver tea-kettle 'for his service, pains, and trouble'.

Finally we must discuss Stirling's second major mathematical contribution, namely his work on the figure of the Earth. On 6 December 1733 Stirling read a paper to the Royal Society of London entitled Twelve propositions concerning the figure of the Earth. The minutes of the Society state:-  Mr Stirling was ordered thanks, and was desired to communicate his Propositions.  Indeed Stirling did submit an extended version of his results which appeared as Of the figure of the Earth, and the variation of gravity on the surface in 1735. In it he stated, without proof, that the Earth is an oblate spheroid, supporting Newton against the rival Cassinian view.  Certainly Stirling was considered that leading British expert on the subject for the next few years by all including Maclaurin and Simpson who went on to make major contributions themselves. As Stirling's unpublished manuscripts show , he did go much further than the 1735 paper but probably the pressure of work at the mining company gave him too little time to polish the work. He explains in a letter to Maclaurin, dated 26 October 1738, why he has not published despite pressure to do so:- 

"I got a letter this last summer from Mr Machin wholly relating to the figure of the Earth and the new mensuration, he seems to think this a proper time for me to publish my proposition on that subject when everybody is making a noise about it; but I choose rather to stay till the French arrive from the south, which I hear will be very soon. And hitherto I have not been able to reconcile the measurements made in the north to the theory...."

In fact the French expedition to Ecuador, referred to by Stirling as 'the south', left in 1735 but did not return until 1744.


    1. Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
    2. Biography in Encyclopaedia Britannica.


    1. I Tweddle, James Stirling: this about series and such things (Edinburgh, 1988).
    2. J Ramsay, Scotland and Scotsmen in the Eighteenth Century (Edinburgh, 1888).
    3. C Tweedie, James Stirling : a Sketch of his Life and Works along with his Scientific Correspondence (Oxford, 1922).


    1. W B Hendry, James Stirling 'The Venetian', Scotland's Magazine (Oct, 1965), 33-35.
    2. T A Krasotkina, The correspondence of L Euler and J Stirling (Russian), Istor.-Mat. Issled. 10 (1957), 117-158.
    3. James Stirling, Dictionary of National Biography LIV (London, 1898), 379-380.
    4. I Tweedle, James Stirling's early work on acceleration of convergence, Archive for History of Exact Science 45 (1992), 105-125.

Antoinette Sterling and Other Celebrities

by Malcolm Sterling MacKinlay
published 1906.

A synopsis of his mother's life by

Compiled by
Lady Mary Sinner-Hendrickson
Jan 02, 2002

All Files are PDFs

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3

Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Click here to view full size image (282k)

This famous Stirling family "member" was not born into a Stirling family, but many of you have heard and ask about her on Clan Stirling Online.

Linda Stirling - The Tiger Woman

Her real name was Louise Schultz.  She was born 11 Oct 1921, in Long Beach California.  Most of you know her by her screen and acting name of "Tigress Linda Stirling".

She studied music, dance, and drama as a child and received a scholarship to a Hollywood acting school. But she arrived in Hollywood to discover the school had closed, and she took a job as a showgirl at the Earl Carroll Theatre in Hollywood. She modeled in fashion advertisements and one ad led to a screen test. She was cast as a model in Powers Girl, The (1942), but more importantly, she was again spotted in an advertisement, this time by executives of Republic Studios, who were looking for a beautiful but athletic woman to star in their upcoming serial, The Tiger Woman, (1944).

Despite having no experience in the kind of stunts and athletics that would be required, Stirling was able to convince not only the executives but ace stuntman Yakima Canutt of her capability. She won the role and a contract from Republic, and played hard-riding and -fighting heroines in numerous serials, Westerns, and low-budget adventure films over the next three or four years.



Linda married Republic screenwriter Sloan Nibley (1908-1990) in 1946, then retired from films the following year. While raising her family in the 1950s, Stirling occasionally appeared on television in choice character roles. Once her kids were grown, she enrolled at UCLA, eventually earning an MA, a BFA and--at age 50--a PhD.

In the 1960s, she began a whole new career as a teacher of college English and Drama. She valiantly tried to downplay her previous screen life, but every semester one of her students would recognize her as The Tiger Woman, and the jig was up.

Linda retired from teaching, and remained a fixture of the nostalgia-convention circuit.  In 1990, as wide-eyed and enthusiastic as ever, she participated in the cable-TV special The Republic Pictures Story.  Her beloved husband Sloan died on the 3rd of April 1990, in Los Angeles.  Linda died on 20 July 1997 in Studio City, Los Angeles, California from cancer.

So one of our famous Stirling's was not a Stirling by name, but like so many of the rest of us felt one of the primary things in life was to get an education, and give something back to humanity.

Michael L. Jex - mike @ jexperformance dot com

As written by Mamie Rachel Sterling-Sinner-Earl
to her granddaughter, Audrey Sinner-Katvala
11 August 1960

Note:  This has been typed by Mary Rachel Sinner-Hendrickson.  I have added missing words, and corrected spelling errors that Grandma Sinner made while writing this.  These things have only been done to make the story easy to read, attempting to keep her feelings and thoughts her own.

On the first page of this writing of Grandma Mamie's, she had a pedigree chart, with the following information.

Bird Far Away (All Indian)
Mohawk Indian
                         Half Indian
Bill Farley          Rachel Ann?

John Farley      Rachel Ann Farley
                         Morris Dillon /  Rachel Ann Farley
                         Rochester Sterling  / Hattie Bell Dillon - 1 child

2nd marriage
Bill Gilpin                  Rachel Ann Farley Gilpin

Dear Audrey,

I am writing this letter history for you.  I pray you will enjoy it very much, and I also pray it will be written in an understandable way, as I am not much of a writer, although I love to write and sew on my sewing machine. I can not write very much at a time, as my hand gets tired, and my eyes get dim. So, excuse my mistakes I make.

My great grandfather Sterling was born in Scotland, far across the sea, and his wife was from England. She had the title of Lady of England.  Then, when my grandfather became a young man, he came to America.  Before he came, he married a French lady. They were royalty people.  My grandfather had homesteads, or bought a farm.  I am not sure which, but had what they called pig iron on it, just like a mine.  PS. They came to New York state. Pig mine Iron that is what they called it in those days, but perhaps it has another name in these days. It made my grandfather rich, so of course he gave all his children a good education. They were all trained business people. I has been told that some of our folks came over on the Mayflower ship which brought many Christians on it. One of my grandfathers was the first mayor of Albany, New York.  My grandfather must of settled in Watertown, New York at (words indecipherable) the place of some of the brothers of his children.

My father, Roch Sterling was born at Watertown, New York.  He had five brothers and three sisters.  I am tired, I have begun to make mistakes.

My father was sent to college to learn to become a lawyer, which all his other brothers and sisters were sent through college. One of his brothers, my Uncle Joe was a president of, or I should say of Sterling Insurance Company. Oh Audrey, my spelling is not good, I make so many mistakes.  I almost give up trying to write this.

Another brother, Plynn discovered a gold mine in Alaska. He, at one time gave my father a present of $20,000.00, a little fortune. Another brother was an author of books, and one of my grandfathers on my Grandma Sterling side was the first mayor of Carthage, New York. His name was Bradford. Then one of my aunts, Mary opened up the first Sunday School and church in James town, New York.  It's quite a story to it, but I just can't write it all.  Then, my Aunt Mary lived to be 96 years of age.  My Aunt Julie was 86 at the time she passed on.  Will try and write some more.

This morning we were out to your (two words unreadable) Daddy's church.  We had wonderful time, as the spirit and power of God was there to bless. I missed Glenn, but I know he is enjoying his self at your place, and with the boys. 

Aunt Julie married a man named Mills, and his son was a senator in New York state a long time ago. Well, I guess it was some time ago.  She lived to be 86, and I am 72, and she passed away when I was maybe 6 or 7 years old then. My Aunt Net married a cousin to President McKinley.  Oh Audrey, honey, I may not of spelled it right.  She learned to sing.  She sang all over America and England. She was asked to sing for Queen Victoria of England about the year of 1853.  The queen made her a present of silver ware, very expensive at that time.  You know in them days, it was almost wrong to disobey a queen's wish. She asked my aunt to wear a low cut dress at the neck, but my aunt always wore a high collar dress, and she refused to wear a low neck.  So, the queen had her to come the way she wanted to dress. She made her home in London, England. There is where she passed away.

And, my father fought in the Civil War in 1862.  He served 3 years, was wounded and was sent home, discharged. He opened up his first law office in Joplin, Missouri, where Bill Cody became the U.S. Lawyer officer.  You know these days were wild day(s) in the west, as that (is) what they called Joplin, Missouri them days.

My Dad roamed over many states, riding horse back. Theres number of things I could tell, honey. Just a few things. In them days, if a man went as far west as Colorado, he was in the wild country, outlaws, and many Indians.  You had to be on guard at all times for your life. Finely, in his 30th year, he came to Nebraska, where he opened up his law office, and as he went down through Kansas, he met my mother, and they were married. He took her to Nebraska to live, and in Shelton, Nebraska 6 of us children were born. My sister Pearl that lives in Olatte, Oklahoma at present, 78 years old.  Sister May, who passed away in Wyoming in 1957 was 72 when she died.  The same age as I am now. And then when the Indian territory was open for homesteading, my dad and Uncle Willie made the race you have seen in the picture shows of the race. So, he settled in Enid, Oklahoma.  There he opened the first land and law office in the town.  People from many states took part in the race as they rode horse back.  Some had horse and carts, some had wagons loaded with things they needed on the trip.  The starting place was on the line of Oklahoma and Kansas.  They lined up there, and at a certain time the sound was given to go.  So, if you ever see the race into Oklahoma picture show, or (3 words unreadable), you know your great grandfather and great Uncle Billy Gilpin was in it, my mother(`s) half brother. They had the same mother, but mother's father went to war, Civil War, and he never came back. So, Grandma married and Uncle Willie was the oldest child by that marriage.  And, he was the first mail carrier in Enid, a little new town that sprang up after the race. They would hang the mail on a rack by the railroad track, and the train never stopped, it just slowed down.  Uncle Willie would throw the mail into the mail car, and the mail man on the mail car threw ? the other mail, and Uncle Willie would carry it to the P. office.  Of course, he had to carry a 45 on him. I could tell you more. Some fellow tried to hold him up, but will go ?  Of course you know we drove horse buggies, or wagons, or horse back. They called my father the cowboy lawyer because he always wore a big hat.  All men of the west wore big hats them days, and my dad always wore a big hat all his lifetime. One time, he went down in southern Oklahoma on business to settle some land trouble (he ? what the trouble was).  And afterward, they built a town and named it after him, Sterling, Oklahoma.  They told him they were naming it after him.  I was just a young girl then, but I remember it well. You know we had no cars, so we had to take the horse and buggy when we went out riding. I remember one time, we were out riding.  Sister May was driving the four of us girls in the buggy, and she was really going fast. She wanted to ride fast, so we went down a hill that had a sharp turn, and turned the buggy over, spilled us girls down the hillside, and broke the buggy. The horse got loose, ran home and left us all to walk home, abut 2 or 3 miles. And, of course it frightened mother, and dad to see the horse coming home without us girls.  We were not very bad hurt, just a few bruises. My father always had stock on his place. Horses, couple of cows for milk for the family, chickens. All of us girls would ride horseback.  We could hitch up a horse to the buggy, or a team of horses to a wagon, or to a ? (word unreadable) machine, or hay baler, or whatsoever they had use for them.

Oh yes, you know we had oil lamps in those days, always washing lamp globes in the mornings. Also used what they called sod or flat irons to iron our clothes, and it was hard because it took so much labor to press so many clothes.  Then we had the old fashion wash boards, which took much labor to have clean water, but thank God time has changed. The new wash machine,  electric irons, so wonderful. Saves the mother so much hard labor.

Morning again. Will try and write a few more lines. I hope you can read this.  Well, honey, guess I just will write down the names of your aunts and uncles.  You have great-great Uncle Alvin Gilpin, 75 years old; Aunt Ida 86 years old, and Aunt Ina 79 years old. On my mother's side, oh I never told you their names. Aunt Ida McCoy, Ina Cook.  These are your great aunts and uncles.  Pearl Culver 78 years old; Aunt Ella McBlair 68; Grace Conley 62; Ruth McBlair 60; Uncle Joe Sterling 65; Uncle Tom Sterling 63; Uncle Bill Sterling 57; Jim Sterling 52, my sisters and brothers.  I am the only grandma you have living, and you have many cousins on your dad's side.  Uncle Joe had grocery store for many years.  Uncle Tom is superintendent to the big oil refinery in Enid. (The next couple of sentences are unreadable).

I will now write a little of my mother's side. Her great grandfather came from Ireland. He came to America many years ago, his name was John Farley. I don't know where he settled, but I do know my great grandfather Farley lived in the state of Iowa. He was the shepherd of the sheep.  There was a very rich man that had a large number of sheep, and he hired out to take care of the sheep. And my mother, after her mother married again, came to live with her grandparents which were very good Christian people.  And, she loved them dearly.  She used to tell me so many things they worked at.  She told me the man that owned those sheep lived in a large 2 story house. Everything was beautiful, and he had a very large barn and other buildings that sheltered his stock. And the house where her grandfather lived in was a half mile away on the side of a small hill.  She said one day a terrible storm came. It rained, the wind blew so hard it blowed a hurricane. I don't know if I spelled it right, or not. We used to have the same kind of storms in Oklahoma. The wind would blow so hard, the raid would just come in sheets.  It would be terrible. So, this storm came.  My mother was about 9 years old.  She became very frightened. They were just in such a little house beside the one the owner lived in, and she wanted grandma to go over to the big house, so her grandma told her she didn't need to be afraid, as God would take care of them. Mother said the little house just reeled and rocked, but it stood the storm, and they stood by the window looking out at the large house down the road.  And, they seen it blow to pieces, laying every one of the buildings flat on the ground.  It was a terrible sight to see, but their house stood because grandmother knew God and knew what he could do.  And, of course grandpa was with the sheep, and everything was all right, as he was praying to God and put all things in God's hands. Isn't it wonderful when we can put all things in God's hands, and sing and be happy because we know Jesus is watching over us, keeping care of us? Like grandpa took care of the sheep, and grandma knew grandpa would be all right because she was praying and she knew grandpa was praying, as he always prayed. So, thank God for his love and mercy he has over our souls.  All praises to God the father, all praises to Jesus the son.  All praises to the Holy Spirit.

So, you know it was told there was an Indian massacre. You know in those days, there would be numbers of Indian come by the farm houses, and ask for something to eat, and lots of times they would be what we used to call it ``on the warpath".  And they would kill everyone they could.  It was up to the winning side.  Sometimes the white would kill all the Indians, so it was told that there was battles fought and some white people came along right after it was over.  Seems how terrible it was.  Indians and white lay dead, but one little Indian baby was still alive. And they were good people that found it, raised the little girl, and she was my great-great grandmother. You know there is lots of good Indians, but who would like their land to be taken away from them, like the whites took the Indian's land?

One day after my great grandfather had all went down to Kansas, and him and his sons taken homesteads of their own, and became farmers.  Mother, Uncle John lived a mile from her home, and she was going over to his place one day.  She was just a child.  She seen a dust storm and she went and climbed up a tree.  And when it got to her, it was a bunch of buffaloes.  If she had stayed on the ground, they would of trampled her to death.  So, I guess her grandma must of been praying for her.

Then another time her and her grandfather was going over to her uncle's. In the evening they were walking and they had a faithful dog. And, grandfather always carried a gun, all people did because they would run in to where wild animals were.  So, where they were, about a half mile from Uncle John's place, they had a little creek they had to go through.  And it was moonlight. And, mother said the dogs came in front of them and began barking, and wouldn't let them by. And, of course Grandpa knew something was wrong, so began to look around, and he looked up in the tree that branched out over the road, and there set a panther just ready to jump upon them.  He raisedhis shotgun and killed it. Another act of God protecting his children.  Honey, I am just writing on.  If I stop to change mistakes, I will never finish this. So you will have to try and understand it.

Well, honey, time went on swiftly. We lived in Nebraska until I was 5 years old.  I don't remember much about it, but do remember we had a number of large trees around our house, and a big swing which hung from the large branches.  And, oh how much fun us children had swinging, and I still love to swing.  And the winters were long and cold.  So time came that we were to go, or move to our home in Oklahoma.  My father had taken 3 acres in the town that became Enid, 3 months after the Indian Territory race.  It was partly on a hill, and so my Dad and Uncle Willie built our house on the hill. Then, Daddy sent for mother and us children to come down to our new home. So, there were f of us girls, and a boy.  Pearl, May, Nettie, then me, then the little boy we called Tuck.  Then the baby sister, Ella. Grandma Gilpin came along to help mother with us children.  It took us 3 days on the train to make the trip.  So well I remember how some of mother's friends helped to prepare food to take along, a big flour sack full of cookies.  I'll never forget those cookies.

So, the xmas before we left, a friend of mother's and all of us children went to the xmas tree, and everything was nice.  But, oh was it cold.  Seemed like my hands were frozen before we got home.  And, the church was not far from our home.  We were to leave Nebraska the 1th (?) of January 1892.  So, at last we all were on the train, the first train we were ever on.  The ride was fine and we had to change cars in St. Joseph, Missouri.  Then that was the first colored man we had ever seen.  Or shall I say black man. That frightened us children, but took such good care of us children, helping us so much.  We all learned to love him, and he kissed I and my little brother goodbye before we left the train.

So, this is why I will never forget the sack of cookies. Sister May was carrying the sack of cookies when we changed trains.  And, oh my, what should happen but the sack came untied and she spilled the cookies right there on the platform of the depot.  And, my mother was a proud woman, and how it did embarrass mother.  It was terrible, but we needed the cookies, and we had to pick up what we could. But, we got some of our cookies and got on our train, and was soon on our way to home, that was our home until most all the children were married. Oh no, Grace was the oldest child left when my father died.  Grace, Joe, Tom, Ruth, Bill, and Jim at home. Well, one more some thing happened as our house was on the hill.   So, us children had many happy days running up and down that old hill.  Dad had put a fence all around our place. I guess he had to fence us in.  So, one day when we were all down the hill, playing in the sand, here came an old colored man, driving horse and wagon, and us children all took to the house screaming, as if we were being killed (rest of sentence is unclear).  But, we made it to the house and mother came running, she did not know what was taking place.  I guess they sure could tell we were white children, as we were so scared so bad we were all white in the face. Now Audrey, I am going to stop just writing so fast, and making so many mistakes, if it takes me all summer.  I've been hurrying so fast, trying to finish before we left for our trip, but not no more.  I will take more time, then I will not make mistakes.

It is 90 degrees hot. Sure is warm.  Carl is out on the porch on the couch, he sure is resting. And, Ernest is sitting out on the porch. Only place we can find a cool breeze.

I'll be glad when we can come up there to visit Ruth and Juanita, Bob and family, and to see you and family. Monday morning we went to you daddy's church for Sunday school, and morning services.  Then we went to the 5th Street mission in the afternoon, then back to your dad's church at night.  So, this morning I am a little weary, so will rest today, and write some more. Honey this writing is mixed up so much, but I write whatever comes to my mind first.

Just thinking, we came to Oklahoma, I think 1891, right after xmas, January 1. It was really cold in Nebraska, and it was so cold, and so much snow all winter, but we got to Oklahoma.  It was a lovely winter, not very much cold weather. It was so much warmer.

One day, us children took off our shoes and stockings, and when mother looked down the hill, we were just having a big time running in the sand. And did mother get us into the house, and did we put our shoes on. It seemed like summertime to us.  Oh yes, when our dad met the train when we arrived, we were all so happy to see our new home. So, when he opened the door to go into the house, there sat a brand new little blue wagon, full of peanuts, candy, apples, and popcorn. That was the first sight in our new home, and of course my little brother was so happy.  He was the only boy, and that was his very own wagon. You know there was no so many toys for children as there is these days.  So, we all had a happy time, and how I loved that little brother, and he loved me so much, as I was just 2 years older than him.  He always missed me so much. Mother used to tell me he loved me so much, and I loved him so much.  So, almost one year, we were all so happy then. Just a while before xmas, he took sick, and oh I was so sad, as he was my playmate.  I miss him so much.  He was bad sick, and was suffering. I remember my heart was breaking.  I was so lonely, missing him so much.  All day, laying in bed, too sick for us children to talk to. Oh, I loved him so, and to this day I cannot write or talk about him, without tears filling my eyes.  So, just a few days before xmas, he passed away. We buried him. It seems that was the saddest day of my life.  I can still see the little white casket sitting by our front window. You know, if anyone passed on in those days, you kept them in your home until you buried them.  Oh, that was such a sad xmas to all our family. Mother's only little boy then, how it broke all our hearts to see him laid away.

The rest of us children all grew up, all married.  You know, Audrey honey, there is no lasting happiness in this old world, lots of trouble, hard things to go through. There is only lasting happiness in Jesus, and I am sure when we reach that other shore, there only will we find true and everlasting happiness forever, and forever with Jesus, with all those that have gone before us, that have put their trust in Jesus, washed in his blood, forgiven of every sin.  Oh, it was so wonderful to know that God sent his only begotten son in to the world to die for us poor sinners, that whosoever would call up on the name of Jesus could be saved. And, I am glad I called upon his name, and he saved me, filled me with the sweet holy ghost.  It gives me joy that no man can take away from me.

Then, when my oldest sister married, that was another sad day. She was so kind and gentle to all us children.  I know God has saints on earth because she was one of them. It left our home lonely. God bless he, I loved her so much. Oh, I feel like praising the Lord right now. Oh, sweet wonder that Jesus loved even me, and I love him for he has been the best friend I ever had.  Oh wonders of wonder how Jesus loves every poor sinner. He is God's only son, blessed be the Father, Son and Holy Ghost.
You know, honey, one day I was sitting by my writing desk, studying my bible, which I have read over and over. Blessed old bible, how I love it.  I am tired, will stop here until later.

Morning, another new day the Lord has made.  Just thinking on how the days have been to you.  I and your mamma and daddy used to have wonderful times with our bibles. We would sit hours at a time, reading and studying the bible.  There was one place, 2nd Cor. Chapter 5. It says to be home in the body is to be absent from the Lord, but to be absent from the body is to be present with the Lord.  So we had thought upon it many times, then we believe when we pass away from this life, we believe the soul returns to God, right in the presence of Jesus. So, about 3 or 4 months after your mother's death, I was alone one day, reading my bible, thinking of this very chapter.  It seemed like I was in the very presence of Jesus. It was so sacred.  I sat for hours thinking and reading, then things changed.  I was in a vision, or trance. In this, I was standing in a great open space, it was a great green, beautiful grass, so green and pretty and many green trees. It seemed to be at a foot of a hill because from where I stood, I could see as far as eye could see. Green fields, and green trees, but it seemed the ground gradually sloped upward, until it reached the sky, and I seemed to look up into heavens. I looked up from where I stood, it seemed I seen Jesus, and the Father, and Holy Spirit, with many angels. And, it was all so bright, and beautiful.

I must of been in the vision for hours.  Then as I was looking upon the beauty of it, I could see a light, or white object coming down as far away as my eyes could see. Must of been coming out of heaven. And, as I stood there, as in a dream, watching it come closer and closer, until I could see it was someone. Then when it got to me, it was your momma. She was so beautiful, dressed from head to foot in a bright white shining garment. I could see her pretty brown eyes, as she came up to me, holding her hand out to me.  She said ``Yes mom, it is as we thought.  Here, take hold of my hand, follow me." I took hold of her hand, and rubbed up on her arm which was as soft as a babies skin.  She said ``Yes, Mom, it is as we thought, and no one can get in here, only in Jesus' name." I don't know how long we stood there, but she was the most beautiful creature, or angel I ever seen.  I was in such amazement, I could not speak to them.  After so long a time, she began to back away, until I could see her no more.  Oh Audrey, it was wonderful.  I told your daddy I seen your momma in her glorified body.  Thank God for the vision. You never know how you feel, until you see such a vision, or in a trance as some people call it.  So, I am satisfied when we leave this body, we are with Jesus.

As now, I think again of a vision I had. I had been real sick for 3 or 4 days.  So, one night I felt as I could not bear the pain that was in my head and chest. I was very sick. I began to cry out to the Lord for mercy, as you know Audrey, I know the Lord is the healer of every disease, healer of every sickness.  So, as I cry unto the Lord, with my whole heart to heal me, as I felt I could not bear the pain much longer, then oh then, God answered me in a vision. I was gone somewhere with the Lord. I was in a corn field and as I stood there in amazement, I seen Jesus standing by a stalk of corn. There were ears of corn on the stalk of corn, and lots of it laying on the ground. Jesus had one hand on the stalk , and pointed his other hand at me, and said `` If you go back, will you help to gather in the grain?"  I said ``Yes, Lord". Then I came to myself. I was well.  He had healed me. Oh, I thank God so much because you know, it says in the bible, by the stripes Jesus bore on his back were for our healing. 1st Peter Chapter 2, verses 21 to 25.

    When evening shadows are falling, and the light is fading away,
    I seem to hear a voice calling, calling for me to come and pray.
    For the souls that are wondering from God, in the wilderness of life, astray.
    For this day is God's day, and he will hear the soul that prays.
    And if you know not God, my brother, and from God you are far away,
    Remember this day is God's day, and he will hear the soul that prays.

Morning again. We were out to your daddy's church last night. Oh, what a glorious time we had.  The power was so strong.  We prayed for a woman Sunday, that was sick. She said the doctor told her she would have to be operated on. So, last night was Wednesday.  She said she was healed Sunday night. When we prayed and she had gone back to the doctor, Monday, he told her she was healed, she did not need no operation now. So thank God.  There were more for prayer for healing last night. Oh God's power is working. That whosoever will call upon him, and believe, will be healed.

I was just thinking this morning of my Aunt Ida McCoy of long ago. When she married, we were at Grandma Gilpin's just about a year before we came to Oklahoma.  They lived in a large house, and when her and Uncle Charlie came down the stairs as someone played the wedding march. I well remember she had a long blue satin dress, and Uncle Charlie had a black suit. And, they looked so pretty as they came down the stairway. And, an old time organ playing. I was about 4 years old then, so it was a long time ago. Now Aunt Ida is 85 years old. You know everything looks so pretty to children. Then they had a big dinner, lots of friends were there, and I remember as they drove away, going somewhere on their honeymoon, as they called it in them days.  And, they threw rice (shaes?) at them, all rejoicing. 

A long, long time ago, the world was much different. I mean, here in good old American -honey, here I am again, scratching and not spelling, but you try and make it out. I am sorry, but I get to writing, sometimes I think faster than I can write, but forgive me, honey.  My eyes are not so good.

Just thinking just how a little bird can cheer us some times.  One morning, after I had been out here in California, and had not seen none of my home folk for about 8 years. I was so lonesome. One morning I was sitting outdoors, thinking of my mother, and the ones back home. I sat crying because I was so homesick to see them all again.  There was a big tree not far from me, and all at once, a sweet mocking bird began singing. And, Audrey, just seemed like God must of sent him to me.  He sang so pretty, it thrilled my soul. Such peace came unto my heart, that what a little bird can do.  He must have been sent by God to cheer my heart. Just a memory. Oh God is so good and hears us when we pray.

Then one time the place where we were living, your grandpa's paycheck was very small, and we had 5 children at that time.  It was almost school days time for the children to start back to school.  And my, my Audrey, how was we going to have, or get money to buy 3 pairs of shoes and things they had to have. You know, in them days you could buy children's shoes for $1.50 or $2.00 a piece, but we never seen much money them days. Wages was cheap. So, one day, I cried out to God, just what were we to do then. I didn't know as much about the heavenly father as I do now, but I knew it said if you believe, and prayed to him, he could do anything for you if you believe (nothing to hard for him).  So, I didn't know no other way to pray, so I asked God to give me enough money, or let me find money enough because I didn't know just how to put it to do so. I knew if he could do anything, he could let me find the money.  So, I never told anyone about praying to find money. I never thought no more about it.  One day, as we drove into town, as we lived in the country. So, a neighbor lady and some of her children and our children all went.  So, we stopped in front of the store, and everyone got out of the car.  I was the last one to get out, and just as I stepped on the ground, I looked down and there lay a ten dollar bill. I picked it up, and never said nothing to no one.  I kept it for 2 or 3 weeks, thinking I might find the one that lost it.  Then one day, someone spoke to me ``Didn't you pray to find money?" Then I bowed my head in shame, and asked God to forgive me because he had sent the money. Wasn't it wonderful, Audrey? Oh, if we were to believe God for all things we (?) his hands when we don't believe. Oh praise his holy name. So, I got the children their shoes, and other things I had to have, and will always remember how good God was to me.  Oh so many times since then, he had done so many things for us, and most of all he saved my soul, sent his precious son to shed his blood on the cross for me and whosoever will may come and drink the water of life freely with out money or price.

    Only a sinner saved by grace, only a sinner he took my place.
    Only a sinner lost in sin, he bid me arise, and enter in.
    No charges I had to pay, just the blood washed away.
    No one will forget a good deed done, but the time will come he who runs
    from the cares of the day, he will find he is beaten because he did not stay.

September 8, 1960: Well, here I am. Another few days has passed. We were intending on being away on our vacation about 2 months.  We left home for Frisco Saturday evening, and arrived Sunday morning at 5 o'clock.  Took our bus at 8:45, and arrived at Sonoma, California at 11 o'clock.  Ernest took sick, so Wednesday morning, Kenny was coming down to Los Angeles, so we came on back home. So we had a short vacation, but we may get to go later on this fall.  We enjoyed our trip, as we crossed the Golden Gate bridge.  As I remember when I first came to California in May 4, 1915, there were two things I did want to see, the California poppies fields, and the Golden Gate bridge.  So when we went across it Saturday, that made 8 times I have crossed that bridge.  Thank God for these things we have a desire to do.  Blessed Lord, make a way for all things.  And I seen many poppy fields, which is a beautiful sight to see.

I remember one time when we were traveling, which we did lots. We were in New Mexico, camps close to the Rio Grand River.  Was then a beautiful river I carried water from the river to wash and drink.  But you know, most things were so much different than now.  How I enjoyed it. We had our camp in among trees, and to have the camp fire burning, and smell the fresh coffee, it was so wonderful. As that Indian blood in me always made me like to live outdoors, and I think it is very healthy to live out in the open air, hear the birds singing, and other animals making their wild sound. And I always love to travel because when I was a young girl, the only way was with wagon or riding a horse, but there was no restriction on what or how you should do a free country, wide open spaces, to do what you like.  We have ferry across the Red River from Oklahoma into Texas. Ferries across the Colorado River. Ferry across the Columbia River in the state of Washington. What wonderful times then. Set out under the stars, and big bright moon at night. But, of course, things and times have changed.  All those things, but most all things have changed since I was a girl.  People are not the same.  Most people dress like the world, act like the worldly people.  Maybe I don't make sense, but I understand. Ha ha. Well, God bless your little heart. I know you got some things hid in your heart that nothing, or no one can take away.  Things about God. Malachi 3, v 15-18:  And, we call the proud happy.  Yea, they that tempt God are even delivered.  Then, they that feared God spake often one to another, and the Lord hearkened, and heard it, and a book of remembrance was written before him, for them that feared the Lord and that brought upon his name, and they shall be mine, saith the Lord of hosts.  In that day, when I make up my jewels, and I spare them as a man spareth his own son that serveth him, then shall ye return and discern between him that serves God and him that serveth him not.

A Yellow Rose:

    One time I seen a yellow rose, its petals were soft and sweet
    It reminded me of a baby, standing on its tender little feet.

    Watching out of a window at the rain drops falling fast
    Brought back sweet memories of dreams out of the past.

    Such dimples little darlings, so innocent and sweet
    No thoughts of tomorrow, of the cares or sorrow it may meet.

    Each day just a dream day, happy hours no thoughts of sorrow
    Kisses, love and play, not a dream of tomorrow.

    As I sit here dreaming, of things out of the past
    A voice seems to whisper, joy like this can never last.

    Times will change tomorrow, to a much different day.
    Where there will be care and sorrow, as we journey on our way.

    For life is just a garden, of flowers rich and rare
    Some lovely yellow roses, some so white and fair.

    Some need so much water, care and sunshine, too
    While some need so little, like a pansy covered with dew.

    For they are all in God's garden, glowing so rich and rare
    As he let his sunshine upon them, he watches them with tender care.

    So fear not little yellow rose, you are in God's care.
    So keep right on blooming, and make the world more fair.

St. Mark 8, v 41:

For whosoever shall give you a cup of water to drink in my name because ye belong to Christ, I say unto you, he shall not lose his reward.

St. John 6 v 47:

Verily, verily I say unto you; he that believeth on me hath everlasting life.

St. John 14:

Let not your heart be troubled, ye, believe in God.  Believe also in me. In my father's house are many mansions.  If it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you, and if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself, that where I am, there ye may be also.

St. John 15 v 5:

I am the vine, ye are the branches.  He that abideth in me and I in him bring forth much fruit.  For without me, ye can do nothing.  And whatsoever ye ask in my name, that will I do, so that the father may be glorified in the son.  If ye shall ask anything in my name, I will do it.

September 19, 1960 - October 10, 1960:

Well, I will try and write a few more lines, too, as we are at Modesto, California with Richard and family. We are all well. We thank God for our health. It was quite a change leaving Los Angeles, as it has been so hot, and it is real cool up here.  Always lonesome to leave Ralph and family, and his church.  May God bless them and their church. Moving up here brings to my mind when I went up to Hester at Chico.  Butch and Spike, was a little fellow then, and I loved them so much. We were all so happy to be together. Then it was the first time I had been to Chico, and there are so many big trees there; English walnut trees, and other kinds of nut trees.  Then we lived close by the Sacramento river.  It was in Sonoma, and everything was so pretty and green. We were all so happy then, as Hester was in good health, and now she is so sick.  Only a stranger in a strange land.  Just to be lead by the dear saviour, looking to him to guide me each day, trusting to him to lead me on the way.

Lord, you heard Peter and John when they prayed. You told them to walk the straight and narrow way, and if they believed, you would be with them, and be unto them a friend unto the end. Oh Lord, hear me.  I am one of your sheep. Be with me, Lord that your reward I will see.

Copied: (not written my Mamie)

    Not till the (?) is silent, and the shutters cease to fly
    Shall God unroll the canvas, and explain the reason why.
    The dark thread are as needful in the weaver's skillful hand
    As the thread of gold and silver, in the pattern he has planned.

    Away with the work that hinders prayer, t'were best to lay it down
    For prayerless work, however good, will fail to win the crown.

In the year of 1960, in the month of June, I went back to the town I was raised in.  They held the family reunion the second day of June.  Four brothers and five sisters.  It really was a grand time, as we all enjoyed seeing each other once again.  There were my sister and brother's children, and grandchildren. Not one of my children was there, but I am looking forward to this coming June in hopes that some of my children will be there. At that time in 60, was 63 people.  What a time it was. So wonderful to be all together. We had our dinner in the Government Springs Park, which is now a beautiful park.  A wonderful time.  Things we don't forget. When we arrived at brother Tom's, sister Ella was very sick. Had been for a good long time. She just couldn't seem to eat anything.  So, about 3 days after I arrived at brother Tom's, my sisters, Ruth and Pearl, and myself went to sister Ella's house. They said she had been terrible bad the night before.  She couldn't keep any food on her stomach, and she hadn't eaten much for a long time, as she was sick. She had been to the doctor the day before we went to see her, and she was going back on the morrow to the hospital. Her daughter told me she said ``Aunt Mamie, momma won't be able to be at the dinner, as they are going to keep her in the hospital.  They think she has a cancer".

So, as we were leaving her, I knew that some of them didn't believe in Jesus' healings.  They thought you just always had to have a doctor.  So, I waited until all had left the room. I said to my sister, Ella ``Now, you know Jesus is the healer.  Why don't you trust him?" I said ``I ought to lay my hands on you and pray, and you believe, and it shall be done".  So, she said ``Pray Mamie".  So, I lay my hands on her, and I said ``Be healed, in Jesus' name", and prayed a short prayer.  Then, her daughter came in, and I said ``Ella, I will see you at the dinner in the park tomorrow".  Ada said ``Oh Aunt Mamie, we are taking mother to the hospital right now, and she won't be at the dinner because they will keep her in the hospital", and turned to leave. I said ``Ada, your mother will be at the dinner.  God has healed your mother".  She couldn't believe it.  So, they took her to the hospital, and after dinner, we went back over to see what happened. The doctor sent her home.  Ada had bought a malt, so Ella said ``Oh, I would like to taste it".  I said ``Take it, Ella, and eat it all", which she did, and she kept it down.  I told Ada to go get her something to eat, which she did. You know, Audrey, there is no doctor like Jesus. So, the next day was the big dinner in the park, it was on a Sunday so everyone could be there. Ella had George take her to Sunday schook, and he left her and drove home.  After Sunday school, she came.  We had the tables all set, all the food on the tables, and we had all set down at the table, ready to eat. We looked across the park, and there came sister Ella, walking, coming to dinner to eat with us.  Jesus did it. Just came in time to begin eating together, but don't think there wasn't every eye on her.  They were so surprised. I said ``Ada, I told you Jesus would heal her, and parise God, in Jesus name, she is healed.  Thank God forever, only believe, and she was there for dinner". Oh Audrey, believe Jesus for everything. He is the healer, the peace maker, and the way maker.  He is able to do more than we can ask, or think.  Praise his holy name forever. He is a real saviour to me, and will be to whoever believes and calls upon his name. Hallelujah, thine the glory, hallelujah amen.  Hallelujah Jesus saved me, he can save other men.

St John v14-21:

Verily, verily, I say unto you.  He that believeth on me, the works I do, shall he also do, and greater works than these shall he do because I go unto my father. If ye shall ask anything in my name, I will do it.

St. John 16 v24:

Hitherto, have ye asked nothing in my name, ask and ye shall receive that your joy may be full.

Copied from a poem, I don't know the name:

    You tell me I am getting old, that's not really so.
    The house I live in may be worn, and that of course I know.
    Its been in use a good long time, and weathered many a gale
    I'm therefor not surprised to find, it is getting some what frail.

    The color is changing on the roof, the windows looking dim
    The wall a bit transparent, to find it looking thin.
    The foundation not so steady, as once it used to be
    You are looking at the outside, but its not really me.

    These few short years do not make me old, I feel I am in my youth
    Eternity lies just ahead, full of life and joy and truth.
    We do not fret to see this house grow, shabby, day by day
    But look ahead to our new home, which never will decay.

    The dweller in my little house, is young and bright and gay
    Just starting on a life to last, throughout eternal day.
    I am going to live forever, life will go its grand
    You think I am getting old, you just don't understand

    He who would see good day and long life, let him remember the prophets of old
    How he told them in his word, that eternal life can't be bought with sin.
    Then you seek the wide world over, and you search here and there
    You can't lay your hand on, the (rest is unclear to typist)

Another copied:

    If I gained the world but had not Jesus, who endured the cross and died for me
    Could then all the world afford a refuge, (?) in my anguish I might flee.
    Had I wealth and love in the fullest measure, and a name revered both far and near
    Yet no hope beyond, no harbor waiting, where my storm tossed vessel I could steer.

    Oh, what emptiness without the saviour, mid the sins and sorrow here below
    And eternity how dark without him, only night and tears and endless woe.
    What thought I might live without the saviour, when I to die, how would it be?
    Oh, to face the valleys gloom without him
    And without him all eternity.

    Christ recieveth sinful men, laden down with many sins
    Purges from all guilt and stain, fit for heaven to enter in.
    There's a dear spot to me and ever will be, the place I made my peace with God
    I left my sins and woe because they all had to go, I left them all at the foot of the cross.

    And, my burdens roll away, as I knelt there to pray, and I was glad for the old rugged cross.
    And I knew in my heart the sweet peace he did impart, Would remain always.

    And when I knelt to pray, my burdens rolled awy, because I left them at the foot of the old rugged cross.  When I hear the saints singing, and hear the sweet music ringing, I think of the beautiful heavens above

November.  Your Momma

    Waiting and watching through the darkness, after a long weary night
    Hoping when darkness had gone, that there would be a bright light.
    Sorrow had filled our hearts, our eyes filled with tears were dim
    And our hope we had vanished, as we remembered the things that had been.

    The grief and the sorrow was heavy, and the burden had bent us down
    But somewhere there was a reunion, someone had won a crown.
    As the saints was (?) by the angels, up through the pearly gates home.

Another poem:

    I know my savior is there, I can feel him everywhere
    And I know he hears me, every time I pray.
    I want to be ready in that hour
    When he comes back in power, to catch his waiting children away.

My Old Bible:

    The book that lay before me, its pages were worn and loose
    They were old, faded and torn, was soiled much by long use.
    Many teardrops had fell upon it, many prayers had been said
    With my trembling hands I had held it, as I searched for the words it said.

    Oh, how often I had read it, as I crushed it to my heart
    For the comfort it had given me, as the words it did impart.
    How I had prayed for my loved one, that God would show them the way.

    They told me of my savior, how he had died for me
    How he left his home in Glory, just to save a sinner like me.
    And often when I was lonely, I would crush it to my breast
    And I could hear a sweet voice saying, child, come unto me and rest.

    For I come to save the sinners, that are lost and sick of sin
    And if you will trust me, you may come and enter in.
    For the blood that was shed at Calvary, was shed in love for you
    And where so many of the promises, as I read on into the word.

    And, I claimed each and every promise, for I had learned to love the Lord
    And this is why the Bible is so dear, to a weary, troublesome heart.
    And this is why with my Bible, I will never, no never part.

In The Summertime:

    It is summer, the birds are singing, the earth has on her beautiful gown
    The children are gayly playing , the sun is brightly shining down.
    All day they have been so busy, not a care has clouded their sky,
    It must of been like heaven, but in heaven they will never die.

    So, the day has passed so swiftly, which we never can recall
    For the deeds we done today, is written down for one and all.
    For they say there's a big book in heaven, it's pages so white and fair,
    For each word or deed we do, is written on its pages up there.

    Then, I stop and wonder, what I had done today,
    Had I been cross to the children, or had I spoken in a sweet way.
    Then I thought of words spoken, so many things untrue
    How easy a promise is broken, and what if they were about you.

    Had I mistreated some brother, or cold and distant to a friend,
    Had I been cross and ugly, and refused to my neighbors to lend.
    Then I thought about the Bible, the old story so sweet.
    To cast all our sin and sorrow, at our blessed Jesus' feet.

    How he came into this world, to die on cruel Calvary
    That you and I might have life, and from sin be set free.
    It's the old, old story, it's often been told
    It just seems to me, just in Christ you can be bold.

    You can turn your back on the devil, and on his servants, too
    For Jesus shines in glory, and he will see that you get through.
    The door of heaven will be opened, to rescue all of its own,
    For the sacrifice of Jesus, in God for all (?) atone.

    Ring out ye glories of heaven, in praises of our king,
    Let us join with the heavenly voices, and make our praises ring.
    For in all this wide world, you never find a friend so true, Jesus will help you through.
    So when the book is open, and all our names are called
    There is blessed hope in Jesus, for one and for all.

In The Valley:

    I was down in the valley, was feeling so low.  I heard my savior call me, said ``Arise up and go".
    I went to the harvest field, worked both early and late
    Told them to turn to Jesus, before it was too late.
    I told of his nail-pierced hands, thorns he wore on his head
    And his bleeding side of blood, for you and me was shed.
    I told them he went away, said he would be back again
    And he would gather each one, that had turned away from sin.

    Oh, I hear the abundance of rain, I feel the joy in my soul
    For I know he is coming back again, to gather his sheep in the fold.
    Then, he called me to the top of the mountain, he showed me the abundance of rain
    The people were receiving the spirit, out of the latter rain.

    Then I knew what Jesus meant, when he said arise up and go
    I will give you joy everlasting, and your cup will overflow.
    Now I am looking for Jesus, for I know it is true
    I know every eye will see him, that means even me and you.

    Oh, the joy of his coming, fills my heart with praise
    For my cup is overflowing, with joy that gave.

A Nation In Bloom:

    The flowers that bloom in the morning, with their sweet fragrance of perfume
    It's just the glimpse of a nation, of youth in its full bloom.
    The flowers must be weeded and watered, and from insects kept under control
    To ? out its sweetest fragrance, with the brightest hues to bloom.

    So friends, it's the same with a nation, it must be treated with kindness and love
    And be taught of the Father's mercy, from the great high heavens above.
    Then who could stand in the presence, of love so mighty and strong?
    So let us get in tune with heaven, and obey the book with love and song.

As I Stood On The Banks Of A River:

    I stood on the banks of a river, watching the blue water as it passed
    The water was running fast, swiftly carrying its burdens as by me it quickly passed. 
    Carrying the leaves and bushes, which had carelessly fell in its path.

    I knew it was winding its way, far out into the deep, blue sea
    Other eyes would behold it, just as it had appeared to me.
    And, as I stood by the river, the water kept flowing along
    To me its sound made sweet music, like someone singing a love song.

    Then I thought of a sweet maiden, with eyes so soft and bright
    Perhaps, looking over the water, thinking of someone far out of sight.
    Out in the midst of the ocean, had gone for his country to fight
    As she stood there with heart breaking, praying to God to make all things right.

    And, further on down the river, in my vision I seemed to see
    A tramp, unshaven and ?, of joy that used to be.
    Happy days gone forever, for mother now he would never see
    For God had taken her to heaven, where she would forever be.

    He sat washing his feet in the river, bruised, weary and all alone
    As the wind blew through the branches, to him it seemed to moan.
    Telling him of the sorrow, that he must bear alone.
    But a voice seemed to whisper, ``Mother used to pray alone".

    He thought could this be the sweet child, that knelt at mother's knee
    As she told him the sweet story, about the man of Galilee?
    That he had come into the world, to save sinners as guilty as he
    And he seemed to hear mother saying, ``Come unto him, he will not turn you away".

    As he sat there watching the water, as it swiftly by him passed
    He thought of his dear mother, for his love for her would always last.
    Then he lowered his head in sorrow, as from his savior forgiveness asked.

    My vision seemed to go with the water, farther on down the stream
    A little shack beaten by the weather, all crumbled, ready to fall, it seemed.
    Surely this must of been the vision, of the tramp that sat by the stream
    Surely he must of answered his call, of prayer so long had been.

    And there as I stood b y the river, I heard the sweet singing of birds
    And, I know others had listened to the sweet singing, the same as I heard.
    And, the water flowed on down the river, and I knew it went into the sea
    Then I knew that the master of the river, would never, no never forget me.

So, Audrey, I am going to draw my book to the end. I am sorry I haven't been able to do better, but honey, I have had many cares this last summer.  You know I brought Ernest home and he is doing wonderful, which I thank God for. I fasted and prayed, so how I thank God he is home and a good Christian boy. But, Margaret is not so well.  ? Uncle Hugh not well, but darling, I just pray and leave them in the hands of God, that I will be able to find them in heaven.  So honey, I am praying that you will get some good out of this writing. I am such poor writer. Of course, this book was just written for you, my own darling girl.  So, honey, excuse the  spelling and writing. I done this all for you. You know I think faster than I can write. So, here is wishing you all a merry xmas, and a wonderful year ahead, full of good things. And, keep close to Jesus.  He will help us through all our sorrow, and fill us with joy.  And may we be able to meet in heaven, and look upon our blessed savior's face.  So, God bless you and children, and may your home be ? together again.

Your grandmother that loves you very much. So may God's riches blessings be with you all.  Bye bye now.  Rachel Earl, 72 years.

Next summer, if God spares? my life, I guess I will write another book with more important things in it, if I am able.

America's Sterling Research
Lady Mary R. Sinner-Hendrickson
29 February 2000

James Sterling
Iron King of New York

A Sterling History
Lady Mary R. Sinner-Hendrickson

James was my great-great grandfather.  He was born in 1800 on 25 January, at Norwich, Connecticut, though no official birth record has ever been located. I felt searching in other states with towns of the name Norwich was warranted, just to be certain the birthplace was not incorrect. Another reason for searching in Vermont was there is a census for Jefferson County, New York which listed James' birth state as Vermont.  We all are aware, however, that census records often have misinformation.  Those searches in the other states did not reveal any records pertaining to James' birth, nor any records of this particular Sterling line.  His parents were Daniel and Mary Bradford-Sterling. Daniel's parents were James and Hannah May-Stirling, and recently proof of ancestry to Stirling, Scotland, and the castle there,  was found. (Hannah May-Stirling also has Mayflower connections).  The surname at the time of immigration to the United States was Stirling, not Sterling. In the family papers of the Stirlings of Keir between 1160 and 1677, their surname is spelled in no less than 64 different ways. Mary Bradford-Sterling was a direct descendant from Governor William Bradford and Alice Carpenter-Southworth-Bradford of the Mayflower Pilgrims.  The Bradford's were my 10th great grandparents.  Mary Cleavland, who was the wife of my 2nd cousin 6 times removed, William Bradford (not the Governor), was the 32nd great granddaughter of Charlemagne.  This connection to Charlemagne, of course, is not direct for myself, however, with the recent discovery of James Stirling of Cornwall, Connecticut ancestry, there are many, many royal and otherwise, notable ancestors which I do descend.  In fact, on my paternal line, surname of Sinner (yes, I said Sinner), and my maternal line, surname of Sweeney, I do descend from Charlemagne.  And, to top it all off, my husband was knighted into a military ordre in August of 1991; thus our titles of Sir and Lady. But, as everyone who knows us are aware, we are still down to earth folk, and would have it no other way.

James Sterling, on 9 October 1826 married Miss Annis Coleman, daughter of Mary Richardson Bullock-Coleman-Slater.  In 1860, Mary was living in James' household. Recently, I was sent an e-mail listing the ancestry of Mary: Richard Bullock, Samuel Bullock, Seth Bullock, Shubal Bullock born 1746/47, in Rehoboth, Bristol, Massachusetts.  Shubal married Mary E. Richardson, and these are the parents of Mary. I have not personally documented this line, but thought it favorable to include here, for future researchers.

James and Annis had several children, one of whom was my great grandfather, Rochester Hungerford Sterling. He was born 4 July 1844, in New York, and through common law marriage, had with Hattie Belle Dillon, several children. Though this was eventually ruled a common law marriage, Rochester and Hattie Belle did have a wedding ceremony, and was known to friends and those who lived around them, as husband and wife.  One of their children was my grandmother, Mamie Rachel Sterling-Sinner-Earl.  Grandma married first to Peter Sinner, at Pond Creek, Indian territory, Oklahoma, and had several children, one who was my father, Richard David Sinner (SR).  Mamie and Peter moved to California, Kern County, where my Dad was born in Bakersfield, 26 October 1919. 

Dad married first to Naomi Arvilla Campbell, who passed away at an early age.  He married second, to Mary Louise Sweeney, my mother, on 5 September 1954. I am the second oldest of eight (one miscarriage) children.  I first married Ronald C. Reed, and had four children. My second, and present marriage is to Benjamin Sherman Hendrickson, III, born in Monmouth county, New Jersey.

It was in 1986 my mother first asked me to assist her in obtaining an official copy of her birth record.  I have been interested in family research, professionally, and for my family members ever since.

This work is a compilation of existing publications, and personal research relating to James Sterling, known as the Iron King of New York.  At the end of this tome, is a section about the workings of an iron mine, such as James owned, and was involved. There are accounts of his physical appearance, his kindly demeanor, and his love of family.

The Life of James Sterling

Physical Characteristics of The Iron King

At the age of 10 months, it is reported he weighed 40 pounds, and 200 pounds at age 14. No doubt this robust body, at this young age is why he was made Corporal in a local militia company during the War of 1812.  As William Allen recalled James, he said  "A most remarkable man, and I remember him well.  Like his father, he was a very large man. I can see him now, as he drove along the road.  He had a buck-board on which were hitched two horses. He filled the entire seat and the wooden supports of the buck-board seat - the long springy timbers that went each side of the rig, would settle almost to the ground with his great weight.  He stood six feet and three inches and was said to weigh 396 pounds.  A regular giant, you see."

"The joke I want to tell you about was at one Fourth of July celebration of years ago. At that time the dinner was the big part of the celebration. Everybody made a big fuss about that.  When the landlord looked out and saw James Sterling coming in, he thought he would have a little joke on his famous guest. So, he told the waiter to put an entire roasting pig upon a platter and put it at Mr. Sterling's plate as an individual dish for him alone.  He figured it would cause no end of merriment among the other guests at the table. The waiter did so, and Mr. Sterling, as sober as a judge, started his dinner as if nothing unusual had taken place. And he actually got away with that entire plate of meat, for he knew he was being watched, and that the landlord thought he had him stuck.  And, when the plate was cleaned up, Mr. Sterling asked the waiter if he could have another portion of meat like the first, and then the joke was on the landlord."

"Now, I was only a boy when this reported incident took place. I never saw it happen and I have always thought there was much fiction worked into the story. However, there must have been some foundation for this story which was much told at that time.  Overdrawn as it probably was, it was about a man who did a great deal for the north country."1 

Folklore has it that he put a four pound iron weight in his pocket to make it an even 400 pounds. He was so large that Watertown's Hotel Woodruff had a chair made especially for him.2  James had one old horse which he had ridden for many years.  Sometimes he would  return home from a  journey, carrying the saddle on his arm and leading the animal by its halter strap.3 Now, I call that compassion!

Personal Research

I've collected several newspaper articles and county history biographies over the past few years, concerning James and his involvement with the iron industry.  He was certainly a man who brought only good to the Jefferson county, New York area. With the iron and lumber businesses, he employed more than a thousand men during the early 1800's to early 1860's.  Much of his young life was spent on the farm, and clearing land in the setting of the town of Antwerp.  Without much formal education, his mind grew, always searching to improve his life and those around him, which he certainly achieved through his businesses.  No doubt his enthusiasm for life was partly due to his being descended from `splendid New England stock', as one report reads, being descended from Governor William Bradford.4 He was good humored and kind, and popular with all, especially the poor, whose necessities and bodily ills were a source of constant care with him.5

James, between the years 1856 - 1863 was a Trustee for Saint Lawrence University in Canton, New York6. I have been told he was instrumental in the establishment of the university, supporting it heavily with his personal finances. Though the only record the university has listing his involvement is the position of Trustee, there is no doubt in my mind that he did contribute funds. James donated the land, which the Sterlingville church stood.  The church was built in 1838, but in the winter of 1885, it was moved across the frozen ice of the creek and into the village.  A mile south of St. Mary's cemetery, and on Plank Road is the Protestant cemetery. In Everts and Holcomb's 1878 "History of Jefferson County" it is referred to as the Town Burying Ground, but by Fort Drum it is listed as Gates Cemetery because it is believed to have come from farmland owned by the Gates family.  However, one acre was originally purchased from Adam Comstock in 1850.  This cemetery served burial places for several denominations, and is where James is buried.  

This family has demonstrated much compassion for all.  What an honor to descend from such primogenitors. The following information was obtained from encyclopedias, newspaper articles, county biographies, family stories, and other various sources. I will try not to be redundant, but want to be sure to include as much information of James, his ancestry and vocation, as possible.  At the end of this compilation will be a section titled `Iron Ore Mining', where you can read about the steps used to mine iron ore, and a special `recipe' for making iron.


Following, is an article written of James Sterling and his mines, composed by his daughter in-law, Hattie Belle Dillon-Sterling. This article was received from the Sterlingville historian.

Antwerp Iron Mines and James Sterling

by Hattie Belle Sterling, Antwerp, Jefferson County, New York

James Sterling, the son of Daniel and Mary Sterling, decided to start farming for himself when he was about twenty-six years of age. He bought a farm in 1836, and it was on this land that iron ore was discovered.  In that year, he began working the mines from which later thousands of tons of ore were to be taken.  The raw red substance was transported by wagons drawn by horses to the furnaces which were built at Sterlingville, Lewisburg, Philadelphia, Carthage, and Rossie.  It was not an unusual sight to see 200 wagons loaded with ore pass a single point in a day.  Mr. Sterling bought large timbered acreages so as to have wood to burn for charcoal to feed the furnaces.  In the days of his greatest activity, he was said to have had a payroll of one thousand men.  Much help was required to operate the mines, drive the teams, cut the wood, burn the charcoal and do many other necessary jobs.

In the Antwerp area many mines were opened but none were as successful as the Sterling mine. In 1869, the Sterling mines were sold to the Jefferson Iron Company. These mines were active for several years afterward, but in the early part of the twentieth century, the mines ceased to operate.  The closing of the mines was due to several factors, namely the nearness to markets of the other companies, and the ores discovered in the Great Lakes section was nearer the surface.  There is still much valuable ore left, and it is hoped that some day in the future, the mines may operate again.

During the years when the mines were operating, the village of Antwerp boomed.  The population  in 1820, was about 1300 residents.  About 1850, when the mines were operating at their peak, the population was figured at 3000.  This figure included the village and the remainder of the township. Shortly after 1890, the population began to decline due to the closing of some of the mines.

Ernest G. Cook Articles

In articles by Ernest G. Cook, one titled James Sterling, One of North's Great Pioneers, a reader gains insight and knowledge into the life of James who was the founder of the rich mining industry at Sterlingville.  Mr. Sterling gave a spark to the whole iron ore development in the Philadelphia and Antwerp sections.  The members of this prominent clan lived up to the meaning of its name which means highest in quality.

Mr. Cook kindly gave us some directions to the cemetery where James and Annis are buried. Traveling west out of Sterlingville, over a dirt road for about a mile, one comes to a cemetery, hidden until you are almost upon it, where pioneers are sleeping. It was in 1836 that the work was started on the first furnace near Black creek in Sterlingville, and Caleb Essington just a century ago this summer erected a forge at Sterlingville where he manufactured refined iron. (Caleb Essington, it is believed was the father of the first wife of Rochester Hungerford Sterling, son of James and Annis).7

In this Sterlingville cemetery section, there is a row of monuments for the following ancestors:

The stone at the head of the row has this inscription:

 James Sterling was born at Norwich, Ct., Jan. 25, 1800. Died July 23, 1863.

The next stone at the left:

 Annis, his wife, died the 9th of April, 1875, aged 65 yrs, 10 mos. and 13 days.

There is another stone in this row that bears an important name of the Sterling family.  This stone reads:

 Daniel B. Sterling, born May 27, 1847, died Feb. 2, 1879.

This Daniel was named for his ancestor,  Daniel who came from Norwich, Connecticut about 1802, and who married Mary Bradford, a lineal descendant of Governor William Bradford, thus some of the Puritanic stock found its way into northern New York. I have a copy of one of the first deeds recorded in the town of Antwerp in the name of Mary Sterling.

In 1836 he purchased the Hopestill Foster farm and soon found rich ore.  In 1840, he organized the Philadelphia Iron Company, and this was the beginning of the blast furnace at Sterlingville. The iron from this furnace became famous in the markets as "Sterling iron" and was a product of the cold blast charcoal method.  In 1844 he established his second blast furnace at Sterlingburg, and later purchased the furnace property at Wegatchie. It was in 1852 he purchased the property which later became Sterlingbush.  By this time, his payroll often reached as many as 1,000 men.  Many a farmer of the other years was heard to say that he was able to pay for his farm because of the teaming he was hired to do by James Sterling in transporting iron ore to the smelter from the mines. 

During the crowning years of his life, the Watertown Reformer, in its issue of 22 January 1857, had this to say of James Sterling: "He is truly one of the most useful great men in the Empire state, and one of whom the Empire state may well be proud. It is such men as Mr. Sterling that raises the state to its proud position among the sovereign states of the Union.  He takes from the earth that which is worthless in its primitive state, and converts it into the most useful of metallic substances."8

In another article by Mr. Cook, concerning the town of Lewisburg, he says the town had, at one time, one of the chief ore furnaces of the north. If you turn right off the state highway when traveling from Harrisville to Carthage, just as you are entering Natural Bridge, you will be on a county highway that leads directly to Lewisburg. You should watch for the turn before reaching the bridge, and with the turn safely made, it is an easy trip to the ancient community of Lewisburg.   

There was still standing, in 1939, an old furnace by the banks of the Indian river. In the early days of this furnace, the Indian river provided power to operate the fans which sent billows of air into the raging furnace to make combustion.  James Sterling did much for this place, being later known as Sterlingbush.  It was Mr. Sterling who brought his name to Sterlingville where he had the famous cold blast charcoal furnace that produced the famed Sterling iron which had a high reputation all through the eastern United States. This was his most favored spot to live. The other project which bore his name was just above Antwerp on the Indian river, where he established a blast furnace. This place was known as Sterlingburg.  The 4,500 acres of land he purchased from Isaac K. Lippencott is what is known as Lewisburg, which included the village.  It is during this time that the business was at its all time high.

Mr. C. Reed, a miner, shared with Mr. Cook some of the events that happened in Sterlingville.  Mr. Reed was born at Cattail Corners, which was off Sterlingville way. There was not a community of its size that sent more men to the front during the Civil war than Sterlingville.

Sterlingville had the big Sterling furnace, the Essington foundry, carriage shops, saw mills, shingle mills, and several other manufacturing plants.  Remember the old Northern Farmer stove? It had the oven up high at the rear of the stove, with the pipes going up to it to permit the heat to circulate around the baking place. That stove was made in Sterlingville by Essington. Most likely the stove in the Protestant church in Sterlingville was made by Essington.

The water power was great. In the 1930's, there was more water going through Black creek at Sterlingville than in the Indian river at Woods Mills in the summer time. The Black creek is fed by springs from the Pine Plains, and keeps up the flow of water.

The furnace was a wonderful thing in the early days. It was located on the side of the village that Mr. Reed lived, known as Furnace Hill.  That is where the Forth of July celebrations were held, and John Rhubart had his arms blown off.

A business survey taken just after the Civil War revealed the following:


  • Peter Pratt      Basket Making
  • William Rhubart/David Seaman   Blacksmiths
  • Lewis H. Mills     Boots and Shoes
  • Palmer Hatch     Butcher
  • Robert E./Fletcher Odbert    Carriage Makers
  • Eleazar Gates/William Murray/John Myers/George Salisbury/Lewis H. Mills    Butter and Cheese Handlers
  • George Salsibury     Cheese Box Factory
  • Lyman E. North     Chair Shop
  • Vincent Smith      Cooper
  • Martin Porter      Pumps
  • Lewis H. Mills               Maker and Seller of Clothes
  • Miss T. Gill     Dressmaker
  • Frank Comstock/James Shurtliff   Livestock Drovers


There were four sawmills, one being operated by Caleb Essington; another by Elbridge Hatch; George Salisbury and James Sterling had mills. The grist mill was operated by Caleb Essington, and was down the stream from the furnace. Joseph Essington manufactured the iron from the furnace into different articles. Christopher Mosher did mason work, and Fletcher Odbert was the painter.  The doctors of the community were Hopkins and Waful. Eldbridge Hatch ran a shingle mill, Lyman E. North had a wood turning business, and Elijah P. Dailey had a clock repair shop. It is easy to see the village with a population of more than 300 was a very active place.

R. A. Oakes


In this County of Jefferson history, Mr. Oakes incorrectly listed James' line through William Sterling of Haverhill, Massachusetts and Lyme, Connecticut.  We know this because our true lineage has recently been proven otherwise.  Most likely, Oakes took what had always been accepted for this family, and did not personally do research to see if the information was correct, or not.  However, I will say, all of the information written about the Sterlings of that time, helped us in confirming our heritage, regardless if some of the research was incorrect.

[Editors Note: DNA evidence has now shown that James IS related to William Sterling of Haverhill and Old Lyme 11/02/2004]

Mr. Oakes had this to say about James, the Iron King: "He engaged in lumbering and built a blast furnace, and employed many hands.  He bought and developed an ore bed in Antwerp, near his father's farm, from which he took out more than one hundred thousand dollars worth of ore, and which is still being mined, and ultimately owned and operated three mines and had furnaces at Sterlingville, Wegatchie, Sterlingbush and Lewisburg.  The slump in the iron business robbed him of most of his hard-earned possessions, and ill health overtook him in his last days."

The author also reported on the life of James' brother, John Riley Sterling. I include some of the entry, for it relates to work James did. Oakes wrote: "In early life he (John Riley) was associated with his brothers, James and Daniel, and Welland Ward, in executing improvement contracts, chiefly in Canada, such as making roads and clearing lands by the acre"9.

The Sterlingville Furnace

By Haddock

This New York biography10 reports the first furnace in Philadelphia was owned and operated by James in 1836 for the purpose of working the ores from the Sterling bed in Antwerp, which he had just purchased from David Parrish. It was completed in 1837, spring time, and was in blast in June.  The first blast was three months, and produced around 155 tons of iron, bog ore being used with that from the Sterling mine.  The Shurtliff and Fuller ores were used in limited quantities as a flux.  In the fall, James associated with him Messrs. Orville Hungerford, George Walton, Caleb Essington and George C. Sherman, and organized, October 31, 1837, under the general law, as the "Sterling Iron Company," with a capital of $20,000.00, in 200 equal shares. A second blast was put on and continued for five months, during which the daily production was not materially increased over that of the first blast. The third blast, using hot air (cold air having been used in the first two trials), was started on the 10th of September, 1838, and continued for the (then) unusual period of 54 weeks and two days, at the end of which the company complimented its employees by a public dinner.

In 1840, the Sterling Iron Company went out of business, and a new one was formed under the name of "The Philadelphia Iron Company."  This was composed of Ephraim Taylor, Fred. Van Ostrand, George Dickerson, William Skinner and John Gates.  The date of their incorporation under the general law was May 19, 1840.  This company rebuilt the furnace, and, having operated it for some time without much success, ceased to exist, and was succeeded by Samuel G. Sterling, a brother of James Sterling, who was the father, and under all the different proprietorships continued to be the master-spirit of the enterprise until 1859, when he retired from active life, and died in 1863.

The furnace was destroyed by fire in 1849, and rebuilt about two years later.  The size of the furnace, when erected was twenty six feet square, thirty-two feet high, with an inside diameter of seven feet.  It was lined with sandstone from Louisburgh, Antwerp, and Theresa. The yield of Sterling ore was forty to forty-five percent, and the product of the furnace was from four to five tons daily (1854).  From 1859 to 1869 it was under the proprietorship of A. P. Sterling, of Antwerp, then sold to the Jefferson Iron Company, Edwin B. Bulkley, President. This company also owned the Sterlingbush furnaces in Diana, Lewis county, which, when in operation, ran on the ore of the Sterling mine, of which the company was the proprietor.  The Sterlingville furnace is now cold, and there is little probability that it will again be in blast.

In 1941, after a century of service the post office in Sterlingville was closed, due to the expansion of Pine Camp military project which wiped the village of Sterlingville off the map. In 1802, John Petty located in the town of LeRay, and in 1804 moved with his family to the town of Philadelphia, and built his house near what was Stricklands Corners. This was near the village of Sterlingville. John was the only settler to remain through the winter of 1804-1805. Later he sold his land to John Strickland.

A settlement grew when James Sterling organized the blast furnace near Black Creek about 1835.  Also, products produced from the Essington forge were of the best, and the indications were that Sterlingville grew to be an important industrial center. It was about this time the post office was established with George Walton as the first postmaster.

Also, in 1941, M. J. Hoover, the present postmaster, obtained a list of all former postmasters of the community.  They were: 

George Walton, Frederick VanOstran, James Sterling, Ezra Skiff, George O'Leary, Amasa M. Barbur, Lewis Mills, George W. Clark, A. Pinney Sterling, Edward L. Proctor, Elijah P. Dailey, Frank D. Bigarel, Sherman Corbin, Michael D. Malone, Charles B. Corbin, Michael D. Malone, Charles B. Corbin, Michael D. Malone, Earl L. Mosher, and Mr. Hoover. As you read, some served more than one time as post master.

Mr. Hoover described where the post offices were located, and remarked that the Corbin store, where the office was in 1941, was a busy place years ago.  On Saturdays, farmers would crowd into the store.  But, with the coming of the auto, roads were improved and a decrease in population resulted.

30 March 2000

I would like to take this opportunity to thank Kathy, who made it possible to include the photograph of the furnace, so we may have a visual idea of what a furnace looks like.11  Some additional information was received from Professor Gordon Pollard12, and Steve Penney13.  One person who deserves recognition, is my `cuzzin', Plynn Sterling.  He provided much information, which definitely helped in compiling this biography.  As many of you know, Plynn passed away recently, and I'd like to say thank you to him, by way of his family.  He is missed.

Reference by J.P. Lesley

Alexander Pinney Sterling, of Antwerp P.O., Jefferson county, New York, at one time managed the Sterlingburg cold-blast charcoal furnace, located on the south bank of the Indian river, one mile east of Antwerp, built in 1846. It was nine feet across the bosh, by thirty-three feet high and in 1854 made in thirty-eight weeks 1,222 tons of iron out of red hematite ore from the Sterling mine.  The forge once occupied this site14.

James Sterling, of Sterlingville P.O., Jefferson county, New York, owned and managed the Sterlingbush cold-blast charcoal furnace, which was situated in Diana township of Lewis county twelve miles south-southwest of Antwerp, on the west bank of Indian river, built in 1848.  It was nine feet across the bosh by thirty-three feet high, and in forty-two weeks of 1855 made 1,322 tons of iron out of red hematite ore from the Sterling mine. An old furnace once occupied this site.

James Sterling, of Sterlingville P.O., Jefferson county, New York, owned and managed Sterlingville cold-blast charcoal furnace, which was situated in the village, on Black creek three miles above its entrance into Indian river.  It was built in 1837, rebuilt in 1857, and was nine feet across the bosh, by thirty-three feet high, and in a six month period in 1855 made 700 tons of iron out of red hematite ore from the Sterling mine.

"The Sterling mines also in Monroe are about a mile south-west from Crossway mine at the south end of Sterling Pond at the north end of Sterling mountain, and opened for three miles along the outcrop of the vein of rich, granular, compact, cold-short ore associated with crystallized green hornblende, sahlite, green mica, fleshy feldspar and octahedral iron, between granite and coarse sienite greatly disturbed, but dipping northeast and east conformably, alternating with the ore a number of times not determined. The ore lies naked about fifty rods wide by 150 yards in length; in many places its surface is even and polished as if ground off by the sliding of the rocks. Prof. Mather says drift-scratches traverse it, he thinks from north to south.  A sketch of the mines and lake is given from memory in plate 30 fig. 4 of Mather's Report. The first mine was discovered in 1750 and named after the proprietor Lord Stirling, and a blast-furnace erected in 1751 by Ward and Colton, since when up to 1842 about 140,000 tons had been taken out.  It then averaged 2,000 tons per annum. The ore is neutral, fusible, strong, and largely used for ordnance casting and bar iron. No dykes are seen. The ore as seen is from 10 to 20 feet thick, inclining 30?, on a smooth grey granite rock, 3 feet thick, under which is a bed of soft pure rich ore, and under this again Dr. Horton pronounces positively to exist a third "immense bed." The ore is exposed on the mountain slope facing the lake, 301 yards along and 150 yards up and down, with 500,000 tons in sight in 1842. Some of the ore is pyritous. It is evident from this description and from the sketch, that we have here a double or triple sediment curving around the ends of shallow anticlinal issuing from the end of the Stirling mountain."15

From another reference book, the following is included:

STERLING IRON WORK.  Mrs. A. Sterling, owner; James Sterling, agent and superintendent; R. H. Sterling, founder (person who makes metal castings); Sterlingville, Jefferson County.

Furnace was built in 1837. It is 30 feet high, 8 1/2  feet across the boshes; tunnel-head about 20 inches in diameter; blast is cold; it is driven through one 3-inch tuyere; power is obtained by means of a breast-wheel of 20 feet in diameter, and 12 feet face.  Water privilege is fair.  Product is about 4 tons per day. Iron is used for car-wheels and other purposes; it is shipped from Philadelphia, the nearest railroad station, which is 4 miles west of the furnace.

Furnace was out of blast from 1858 to 1862, inclusive. In 1863, it produced 780 tons; in 1864, 720 tons in 31 weeks; in 1865, 1098 tons; and in 1866, 700 tons.

Ore is about seven-eighths Sterling, and one-eighth Shurtleff. They are both red oxides, the former yielding about 50 per cent, and the latter 33 per cent. About 2 1/2 tons of ore yield 1 ton of iron. Sterling ore is hauled 11 miles; Shurtleff, 7 miles.  The Sterling mine is owned by the Sterling family.  The Shurtleff ore is purchased for mixing, as it renders the ore more readily reduced; it contains considerable limestone. Limestone is hauled about 5 miles; charcoal is hauled 4 miles on an average.  It costs about 7 1/2 cents. About 150 bushels are used to the ton of iron. In mining, furnace, teaming, &c., about 100 men are employed.

The Sterling mine is an extensive open quarry. It has been worked for many years. The quantity of ore is very great. The stripping is not heavy.  There is some rock through the ore, which, however, is readily separated by hand. The mine is in the town of Antwerp.  It is about 2 miles from the line of the railroad, and about 4 miles from Antwerp station.  The ore is similar to that of the other mines in this section; it is rich. In 1866 the ore only went to the Sterling Iron Works and the Sterling Bush Furnace. Probably about 5000 tons were mined. Some twelve years ago the product of the mine was 10,000 or 15,000 tons.

The mine has been worked for a number of years.  It was owned by James Sterling.  He built and at one time ran 4 furnaces in this section.  In 1857 he failed, and the Wegatchie and Sterlingburg Furnaces were abandoned.  He died in 1861, leaving several sons, who now run the furnaces at Sterlingville and Sterling Bush. The mine, the two furnaces, and considerable property are still held by the family.

STERLING BUSH IRON WORKS.  A. P. Sterling, Lessee, Sterling Bush, Diana, Lewis County.

Furnace was built in 1837. It is 30 feet high, 9 feet across the boshes; has one 2 1/2-inch tuyere; blast is cold, and driven by means of a breast-wheel about 18 feet in diameter and 9 feet bucket. Water privilege is good.

Ore is from the Sterling mine. It is hauled 11 miles in winter, and 14 in summer; it is mixed with one-tenth Shurtleff ore, hauled 16 miles. Both these ores are red oxides. (See Sterling Iron Works, above).  Charcoal is hauled 2 to 4 miles; limestone about 1/2 mile.  Furnace is situated about 12 miles S.S.E. of Antwerp, which is the nearest railroad station, and 9 miles E. of Sterlingville. This furnace is one of several built by James Sterling.16

One thing I've noticed in some of the sources used in this writing, is a difference of dates of the establishment of the various furnaces, though this is not a problem. The years reported are within the right time frame, but thought it worth mentioning. You read one source stating James died in 1861.  This year is incorrectly listed, as he passed away in 1863.

Another interesting observation is the given names of two of James and Annis' children.  It seems  most likely they were named after business partners of James. The business partners were Orville Hungerford, and George C. Sherman.  The children were named Rochester Hungerford Sterling and George Sherman Sterling.  Business partner, George C. Sherman was a banker, and would certainly be an asset to the business.  

 hope you have enjoyed reading about my great great grandfather, James Sterling, Iron King of New York. As his progenies, we are very fortunate to have available to us newspaper articles, county biographies, family knowledge, and such, to learn of his livelihood, and feel a little closer to him.

Enjoy reading about iron ore mining, which follows.
Lady Mary R. Sinner-Hendrickson
All e-mails welcome.

Iron Ore Mining

As of 1963, iron and steel were considered the most useful and least expensive metals.  Machines made of iron and steel produce so many things we use today - paper, lamps, clothes, food, housing, and trains, planes, and automobiles. It is easy to take iron and steel for granted, after all, they are such a common part of our daily lives. Case in point, in colonial times, families spent their evenings making a few nails by hand. How often have we bent a nail while hammering, and simply thrown that bent nail away, and grabbed for another? Times certainly have changed over the years, haven't they?

Poets and musicians have written about iron. Richard Wagner's opera Das Rheingold is one example.  Another is Rudyard Kipling's poem Cold Iron:

"Gold is for the mistress-silver for the maid-
Copper for the craftsman cunning at his trade."
"Good!" said the Baron, sitting in his hall,
"But Iron-Cold Iron-is master of them all."

What Iron Ore Is

Iron ore is the basic material from which iron is taken. Iron makes up about 5 percent of the earth's crust.  It is believed the formation of some iron ores began over a billion years ago-long before life of any kind existed on earth.  Volcanoes spouted dust into the air and this fell into streams and rivers. The chemical-laden waters dissolved iron out of rocks with which they came in contact. These iron-bearing waters flowed into the oceans.  Here the iron slowly fell to the bottom. Great beds of iron oxide, sand, and silt drifted in piles hundreds of feet thick on the ocean floor. Heat and pressure formed these beds into rock.  Later, earthquakes and the shrinking of the earth's crust brought these rocks to the level of the water. Here other changes occurred. Great glaciers, thousands of feet thick, moved down from the north.  These moving ice sheets gouged and tore at the rocks and sediments and with their great pressure caused other changes. When the ice melted, rivers formed that cut grooves in the rocks and deposited sands and gravel, called glacial moraines, over them. Iron bearing rocks contain 20 to 35 percent iron in the form of oxides, carbonates, and silicates. They occur in large quantities in the northern part of the world across the United States and Canada, Norway, Sweden, Russia, and Manchuria. They contain too little iron to be used for steelmaking but are the mother rocks from which much of the iron ore comes.  In some places, waters seeping through the rock have dissolved out much of the worthless sand, leaving the iron ore behind. In some areas, the slow cooling of molten volcanic rocks produced iron-ore deposits. In other areas, the action of tiny organisms living in the water caused, and is still causing, iron oxide to form.

Kinds of Ore

Hematite: Usually occurs as a red-colored mineral. About 85 percent of the iron ore mined in the United States is Hematite. In its purest form, it is about seven-tenths iron.

Limonite: A yellow-brown mineral.  It is the source of only about 1 percent of the iron used in the United States.

Magnetite: A black mineral that has magnetic qualities.  About 1- percent of the iron ore that is mined in the United States is Magnetite ore.

Siderite: Commonly a gray-brown mineral, is sledom mined in the United States. But, it is an important iron source in Germany and Great Britain.

Taconite: Rock which contains iron in fine specks and streaks. Much of it contains about one-fourth iron. 

How Iron Is Mined


Open-Pit Mining

When the iron ore lies close to the surface, it often can be uncovered by stripping away a layer of dirt.  Huge power shovels scoop up large bites of the ore. The wide holes in the ground are the open pits.  The shovels often dump the ore directly into railroad hopper cars or trucks.  Most Lake Superior iron ore is dug by the open-pit method, and is shipped to iron and steel mills by ship or rail. 


Shaft Mining

Iron-ore deposits may lie deep underground.  Then a shaft must be dug from the surface, and an elevator, or hoist, installed. Miners then cut tunnels branching out from the shaft along the vein of ore.  Cars or other conveyors are used to carry the ore to the shaft.  The cost of mining iron ore by the shaft method is higher than that of open-pit mining, for obvious reasons.

Iron "Recipe"

The iron-maker starts out with a basic material, iron ore. He adds coke and limestone. Then he cooks all these together in a furnace into which a great blast of hot air is blown. He uses water to cool the outside of the furnace.  The recipe for making one ton of iron calls for about 1 3/4 tons of ore and other iron-bearing materials, 3/4 of a ton of coke, 1/4 of a ton of limestone, and 4 tons of air.

Coke serves two purposes as it burns with the air blown into the furnace. 1 - The gas produced changes the iron oxide in the ore into pure iron; 2 - The heat produced melts the iron and also all the impurities. The impurities float on top of the iron because they are lighter.  At intervals, the impurities are drained from the furnace.  At longer intervals, the iron, which contains some carbon, is removed. Coke is made by heating coal in tall, narrow coking ovens.

Limestone helps remove impurities. Many of the impurities in the ore ordinarily do not melt at temperatures as low as the melting point of iron. When limestone is mixed with heated iron ore, it acts as a flux.  This flux combines with impurities and causes them to melt at lower temperatures than usual.  The impurities that float to the top of the melted iron are called slag, or cinder.  Dolomite is sometimes used in place of limestone as a flux.

Air is used in large quantities in iron-making.  The oxygen from the air combines with carbon from the burning coke to form carbon monoxide. As the hot carbon monoxide flows through the iron ore, it combines with oxygen in the ore to form carbon dioxide.  This frees the iron from its chemical prison in the iron-oxide ore.

Water is important in keeping an iron-making furnace from becoming overheated.  About 11,000,000 gallons of water are used each day to cool a furnace which makes 1,000 tons of iron. 


How Iron Is Made In A Blast Furnace

(The type James Sterling owned and operated)

The iron recipe described above is cooked in a blast furnace.  A blast furnace is a large cylinder made of steel and lined with heat-resistant brick.  Some blast furnaces are taller than a 15-story building and more than 30 feet wide at the base.  The furnace gets its name from the steady blast of air which is forced into the lower part of the furnace to burn the coke that produces the heat to melt the ore.

When the blast furnace is first lighted, it is filled with more coke and less ore than usual.  The bottom of the furnace is filled with wood to start  the coke burning. Once the furnace has been lighted, it is kept operating day and night continuously until the brick lining wears out and must be replaced.  A blast furnace may run two or more years.

The materials used in the blast furnace to make iron are called the charge.  Therefore filling the blast furnace is called charging.  The blast furnace is filled at the top.  Five to ten-ton cars shuttle up and down tracks on an inclined ramp, called a skip hoist. At, or below, ground level, each skip car is filled with a carefully weighed load of limestone, coke, or iron ore.  The car is then pulled up the ramp until it reaches the top.  There it is upended to empty its contents into the furnace.  As one skip car rises to the furnace top, the other descends to be filled.  In this way, charges are added to the furnace to keep it full.

Each blast furnace has several giant stoves. These are towers as high as 125 feet, and are lined with firebrick.  Blast-furnace gas is burned in the bottom of the stoves.  After a stove has been heated very hot, air is pumped through it, heated, and then blown into the blast furnace at a rate of up to 100,000 cubic feet a minute. While one stove is being blown, others are being heated. This blast of air acts in the blast furnace the same way as the air you fan into a camp fire to make it burn faster.      

The hot air enters the furnace near the bottom through nozzles, or holes, called tuyeres.  The blast of air causes the coke to burn.  The terrific heat-from 2800 degrees f. to 3000 degrees f. - causes the raw materials to be added at the top.  The melted iron, freed from impurities, trickles down to the lowest part of the furnace, called the crucible, or hearth.  The slag containing the impurities floats on top of a pool of iron four or five feet deep.

Every four or five hours, molten iron is drawn off, or tapped, from the hearth of the furnace. When the furnace is tapped, a plug is burned out at a point called the iron notch.  The hole is almost level with the floor.  A white-hot stream of iron rushes out of the furnace with a shower of sparks.  It flows through a trough in the cement floor to ladle cars, also called bottle cars or hot-metal cars, that hold from 40 to 160 tons of molten iron.  Up to 400 tons of iron are tapped from the furnace at a time. When the tapping is completed, the furnace is re-plugged.

The slag is tapped from the furnace oftener than the iron. It is drawn off through a hole called the cinder notch, located above the level of the iron in the hearth.  The slag also flows through troughs in the floor and is carried away by ladle cars. The entire tapping operation is controlled from the cast house.  This is a steel and concrete building at the base of the furnace.


Pig Iron

All the iron made in blast furnaces is called pig iron.  This is because the iron is cast into bars called pigs, when it is to be shipped long distances from the furnace. To cast these bars, the molten iron is carried by the ladle cars to a pig-casting machine. There the molten iron flows into molds which move around the ladle.  The name pig comes from an early method of running the hot iron into small sand molds arranged around a main channel like a litter of small pigs around their mother.  The central channel was called the sow.

However, today most of the pig iron tapped from blast furnaces is not cast into pigs, but is used to make steel. This molten iron is carried by the ladle cars directly from the blast furnaces to huge heated tanks called mixers. Each mixer holds about 1,000 tons of molten iron. The mixer keeps the iron in liquid form until it is used by the nearby steelmaking furnaces.

Pig Iron as it comes from the blast furnace is not pure iron.  It usually contains about 95 percent iron, from 3 to 4 percent carbon, and smaller amounts of manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, and other elements.17


Requirements To Run A Mine

To run your typical mine in 1777, at the time of the Revolution, the following was needed.  Since this was wartime, it was difficult persuading the powers-that-be to allow these men to work the mines, and not to order them to war service. 

For the furnace:

  • 20 men, wood cutters
  • 4 master colers
  • 16 helpers (for the colers)
  • 3 men for raising oar
  • 2 men for carting oar
  • 7 men carters for hauling coles
  • 2 men for stocking coles
  • 1 banks man
  • 2 men burning oar
  • 2 mine pounders
  • 2 fillers of furnace
  • 2 founders
  • 1 gutterman
  • 1 blacksmith
  • 1 carpenter
  • 1 manager
  • 1 clark

For the Forge and Anchory:


  •  20 men for cutting wood
  • 3 master colers
  • 12 helpers (for the colers)
  • 5 men carters for hauling coles
  • 2 stocker of coles
  • 10 men for making iron in five fires
  • 10 men for making anchors, three fires
  • 1 carpenter
  • 1 blacksmith
  • 1 manager
  • 1 clark

For the Steel Works and Forge:


  •  15 men for cutting wood
  • 3 master colers
  • 12 helpers (for the colers)
  • 4 men carters for bringing the coles
  • 1 stocker for coles
  • 1 man to cart pigs
  • 6 men for making steel, in three fires
  • 4 men for making iron in two fires
  • 1 carpenter
  • 1 blacksmith
  • 1 man to manage the business18

End Notes

1 Watertown Daily Times, April 1931
2 New York Times, Joanne Johnson, Vanished Past: Village Cemeteries of Fort Drum
3 A Sterling Genealogy, Albert Mack Sterling, Grafton Press, 1909, New York, page 900
4 Cook, Ernest G., Interesting People, Events and Places (from a New York newspaper, date unknown.)
5 Cook, Ernest G., Interesting People, Events and Places
6 Saint Lawrence University General Catalogue, 1856-1925, Officers of Administration and Instruction, page 34.   Contact: Ann Gilmore, Office Manager, St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York 13617 (1996)
7 Mary Sinner Hendrickson, Fayetteville, Arkansas, Lady Mary Hendrickson
8 Ernest G. Cook, New York Times, James Sterling, One of North's Great Pioneers by Ernest G. Cook September 25, 1939
9 Genealogical and Family History of the County of Jefferson, R. A. Oakes, 1905, page 1278
10 The Growth Of A Century, Haddock, page 660
11 Courtesy of Furnace Town Historic Site
12 Gordon Pollard, Professsor and Chair of Anthropology, Plattsburgh State University, Plattsburg, New York
13 Steve Penney, Hewitt, New Jersey.
14 Lesley, J.P., 1856 (1866 edition) "The Iron Manufacturer's Guide to the Furnaces, Forges and Rolling Mills of the United States...", New York: Wiley, John, publisher. Entry 635, pages 143-144, entries 636-637
15 Lesley, J.P., 1856 (1866 edition) "The Iron Manufacturer's Guide to the Furnaces, Forges and Rolling Mills of the United States...", New York: Wiley, John, publisher. Page 411
16 Neilson, Wm. G., 1867, "Charcoal Blast Furnaces, Rolling Mills, Forges and Steel Works, of New York in 1867." Compiled for the American Iron and Steel Association, page 249|
17 World Book Encyclopedia, 1963,  Book I, Volume 9.
18 Vanishing Ironworks of the Ramapos, page 186

Born: ? 1800 STIRLING, James, Civil engineer.  Born at Methven, Perthshire, and studied at Edinburgh and Glasgow Universities for the Church, but early turned his attention to mechanical engineering, serving an apprenticeship with Girdwood & Co., Glasgow, preparatory to being engaged as engineer at Deanston for the well-known works carried out there by the enterprising James Smith; assisted in constructing the salmon-ladder on the Teith, and latterly became much occupied in devising air-engines.  Died 10 Jan 1876 aged over 70.




Born: 1787 STIRLING, William, West India merchant.  Born at kippenross; Chairman of Glasgow  Chamber of Commerce, 1845; Director of Mer­chant's House, 1840-47; Director of West India Association.  Died 1862 in Edinburgh, aged 75.




Born: ca 1710 STIRLING, Walter, Glasgow merchant and magistrate, founder of Stir­ling's Public Library, son of William, surgeon and apothecary, and nephew of John, Lord Provost of Glasgow, 1728-29.  By his will, dated Feb., 1785, Walter Stirling bequeathed his collection of valuable books, his mansion in Miller Street, his share of the Tontine Buildings, and £iooo sterling, for the purpose of establishing a public library for the use of the citizens of Glasgow; the donor directed that the management of the library should be vested in the hands of the Lord Provost for the time being, and three members of the Town Council, Merchant's House, Presbytery of Glasgow, and Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons, respec­tively.  Library opened in Faculty Hall, St. Enoch Square, with 760 volumes; removed to Hutcheson's Hospital, 1805 ; to Miller Street, 1844; and to the new building in Miller Street, 1864, when the number of volumes embraced in the catalogue was over 20,000.  Librarian, (1880) Mr. Blair.  Died: 17 Jan 1791



Born: 20 Jul 1806 - Essayist and miscellaneous writer, son of Edward, the famous “Thunderer” of the Times newspaper, and the “Captain Whirlwind” of Carlyle.  Born in Kames Castle, Bute, and educated at Glasgow University, and Trinity, Cambridge, where he had Dr., afterwards Archdeacon Hare, for his tutor; and became acquainted with a knot of brilliant young men, numbering among others Frederick Maurice, Richard Trench, Monckton Milnes, and Charles Buller; after leaving Cambridge, Sterling purchased the Athenaeum newspaper from its projector, Silk Buckingham; but the speculation not being successful, the print was disposed of to Mr. Dilke; in 1834, Sterling entered holy orders, and becamse curate of Hurstmonceaux, Sussex, under his friend, Archdeacon Hare; but delicate health compelled him to leave church duty in less than a year afterwards, and henceforth his life was spent in migrations between England and other countries enjoying a warmer climate; the peculiarly intellectual qualities of his character endeared Sterling to a circle including the mist distinguished literary men of his day, and after his death, a very affectionate biography was written by Thomas Carlyle.  His most important contributions to literature were published in a collected form in 1848, under the title of “Essays and Tales”.  Died aged 38



Born: 1832,  represent­ing the ancient family of Calder, and thought to have descended from Sir John, armour-bearer to King James I., Comptroller of the Royal house­hold, Governor of Dumbarton Castle, and Sheriff of Dumbarton.  Sir John, who was knighted at the baptism of the twin Princes, 1430, obtained the lands of Glorat in dowry with his wife, daughter of the laird of Gal­braith.  The above Sir Charles succeeded his brother, Sir Samuel Home, eighth baronet, 1861, and acted for some time as captain in Stirlingshire militia.